Personality Questions and Answers

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Personality Questions and Answers

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How does culture affect personality?
What is personality?
What is a personality trait?
Personality psychology attempts to understand human nature using the method of: A. science B. literature C. intuition D. philosophy
Optimism protects new mothers against developing depression following the birth of their baby. A) True. B) False.
Which Type A personality characteristic has the greatest likelihood of increasing an individual's risk for developing chronic heart disease? a. Chronic impatience. b. Drive/motivation to attain hi...
How is trait theory different from other theories of personality?
Answer true or false: Compared to Type B personalities, Type A personalities tend to be more calm, less emotional, and more tolerant of mistakes. Type A personalities are at lower risk of cardiovas...
Your therapist has recommended an assessment in which you are asked to recall a series of digits in forward order and backward order in order to measure your working memory. You are most likely tak...
_____ is a pattern of relatively enduring ways a person thinks, feels and behaves. a. Acting out b. Attitudes c. Personality
At 8 months of age was your child an "easy", "slow-to-warm-up", or "difficult" baby in terms of Thomas and Chess's classic temperamental categories? On what do you base this judgement?
Tracy and Shahid are not related to each other. They are both 4 months old and have lived together since birth (with their parents and siblings) in a communal house in Switzerland. They have the sa...
How does personality interact with culture? a. People tend to adapt their personality to their culture's ideals. b. People tend to ignore the needs of their cultures. c. People tend to reduce i...
List the differences between Humanistic Theories of personality and Psychodynamic theories of personality.
What is the term for the comprehensive descriptive personality system that includes openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism; Informally it is called the "BIG FIVE"...
What is the term used to describe a unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions? a. preconscious b. phrenology c. character d. personality
Does pollen bring all the genetic traits of the male parent to bear on the offspring?
Explain the theories of development economics.
Discuss the theories of personality related to human resource management.
Controller Pete Rogers says that any gathering of traffic air controllers is "almost like a mini convention of Type A personalities." Does this assesment suprise you or make sense to you? In what w...
A first impression is typically made in the first a) 7 to 10 secons b) 20 to 30 seconds c) 1 to 2 minutes d) 3 to 5 minutes
Samantha is practical, conventional, and prefers routine. Jessica appreciates those traits in a partner. Samantha would most likely score low on the ______ trait. \\ A. agreeableness B. neurotici...
According to Freud, how do we develop personality from the conflict between two competing forces?
Environmental chemistry: How does justice become an issue between the industrialized countries and the developing countries in the effort to protect, conserve, preserve and clean up the environment...
A child that cries often, has irregular basic routine and reacts to change with difficulty would be considered a [{Blank}] child. a) Easy b) Difficult c) Not categorized d) Slow to warm up
Interview two people you consider to have different temperaments. Briefly describe their temperaments in two or three sentences. What causes do you think have led to the difference in Temperament?
According to Gordon Allport, what are the five dispositions of personality?
Describe the life story approach to personality.
Identify the term being described by the following definition: A systematic tendency for people to be overly optimistic about the outcomes of their plans and projects.
You are trying to sell your audio system (an amplifier and speakers) to raise money for an upcoming trip to overseas. The system works great, an audiophile friend tell you that if he were in the ma...
A person with a(n) ______ personality regards legitimate authority as absolute and accepts or rejects others according to how much they agree with accepted authority. a. dogmatic b. authoritarian...
What does Raymond Williams mean by TV flow?
Did Raymond Williams found the field of software studies?
What is personality? How do we typically measure it?
How would an individual's personality be explained by a behavioral psychologist and by a psychodynamic psychologist?
What is the difference between paleoanthropology and anthropology?
Where do new genetic variations come from according to biological anthropology?
Does anthropology involve biology?
In psychology, the term is defined as an individual's unique and enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
What is a hom-set in category theory?
Sue is one of those people who is constantly convinced the world is out to get her and the worst will always happen. Since her personality is a Modifying Factor, in which ways will it affect her li...
Who developed the idea of person variables and what does it mean?
An impressive body of research supports that five basic personality dimensions underlie all others. a) True b) False
Paleoanthropology can best be described as the study of: a. Paleolithic hunters b. genetic commonalities among the primates c. early human toolmaking d. human evolution
Which statement presents a negative element in a positive way? A. The part can be replaced at no charge only if your unit is less than two years old. B. If your unit is too old, you will have to pa...
How does knowledge from evolutionary biology influence the approach to study the mind/cognitive abilities in cognitive science?
A person's personality can affect the way they perceive an experience. Conversely, different experiences can change the way a person's perceptions take place. This is an example of which concept?...
What are the main arguments of the trade optimists? Is this position supported by the data?
Which statement about people with hardy personalities is false? A. they view stressors as challenges. B. they have less intense reactions to stressors. C. they have a strong external locus of contr...
What are the different branches of biology? How does each branch contribute to our understanding of biology?
Which of the following best describes the purpose of biological anthropology? (a) Understanding human variation through genetics and culture (b) Categorizing human variation through social and beha...
What is meant by an empirical approach to personality assessment? What are its possible advantages over theoretical approaches?
What are the two main tenets of Cattell's trait theory?
How much importance should an organization give to personality testing when selecting expatriate managers?
How does Freud's dualistic model explain the development of personality?
Describe the phenomena of personality and its contributing factors.
Which is not an input parameter to the 'Biotic Ligand Model'? a) Fe b) pH c) Ca d) Na e) SO4
Suppose workers become pessimistic about their future employment, which causes them to save more and spend less. If the economy is on the intermediate range of the aggregate supply curve, then a....
Optimism is an important trait for a leader, yet some employees complain that optimistic leaders create significant stress because they don't anticipate problems and expect their subordinates to me...
Risk factors for coronary heart disease include all of the following EXCEPT [{Blank}] a. family history. b. high blood pressure. c. smoking. d. type B behavior.
Individuals who experience more car accidents and often arrive early for appointments are [{Blank}] personalities. a. Type A. b. Type B. c. Type C. d. Type D.
Individuals who are highly driven, competitive, impatient, and aggressive are referred to as [{Blank}] a. Type B. b. Type A. c. Type C. d. none of these.
Individuals who are relaxed, patient, forgiving, and focus on the quality of life are [{Blank}] a. Type A. b. Type B. c. Type C. d. Type D.
Type A is to [{Blank}] as Type B is to [{Blank}] a. hurry up; fast pace. b. relaxation; hurry up. c. hurry up; relaxation. d. patient; impatient.
Which would be true of a person with a Type A behavior pattern? a. Eating slowly. b. Delegating authority to others. c. Dominating group discussions. d. Arriving late to appointments.
Margaret is very impatient, driven, and competitive. She shows a [{Blank}] pattern. a. Type A. b. Type B. c. Type C. d. Type D.
Sarah earns high grades and leads a study group at school. Her brother is less ambitious and earns low grades. Most likely Sarah is a [{Blank}] a. Type A. b. Type B. c. Type C. d. not enough in...
Betsy paces herself in her work, tends to be less impatient, and also tends to be less ambitious. She fits a [{Blank}] pattern. a. Type A. b. Type B. c. Type C. d. Type D.
Which of the following most closely matches the Type A beliefs? a. Type A individuals can change their behaviors. b. Type A individuals need to be perfect. c. Impatience and irritation contribute t...
Karen is a highly driven person. She is competitive, impatient, and often aggressive. She walks, eats, and talks rapidly and constantly feels rushed and under pressure. Psychologists would say that...
If you were to compare the personality traits of all females with the personality traits of all males, you would expect to find more variation [{Blank}] a. within females than within males. b. wi...
A person who is competitive, impatient, and easily angered fits the description of a(n)[{Blank}] a. obsessive-compulsive personality. b. Type B personality. c. Type A personality. d. Type C per...
Individuals with Type C personality were originally thought to be more prone to [{Blank}] a. cardiovascular disease. b. mental illness. c. cancer. d. learned helplessness.
Jet is extremely outgoing to the point that he almost never stays in for an evening and he does not just go hang out with friends at the coffee shop. He is constantly doing things like skydiving, b...
Which statement would be most agreeable to a trait theorist? a. The focus in studying personality should be to find the characteristics that all people share. b. People tend to behave differently...
A child who is usually in a good mood, readily adapts to changes, and readily approaches new situations, has a temperament that would be called [{Blank}] a. slow-to-warm-up. b. secure. c. natura...
Shem spent most of his early years crying. He had an irregular pattern of sleeping and eating and did not easily adapt to changes to his routines. Shem most likely has a(n) [{Blank}] temperament....
The [{Blank}] person is likely to earn higher grades and more money than the [{Blank}] person. Fill in the blank(s) with the correct words.
Who is Henry Kaufman? One paragraph will suffice for your answer.
How does ethnicity shape personality from both genetic and environmental factors?
What is the purpose of using deception in psychological research?
When putting people in groups, do you need to think of the personality of each member in the group, and how they would work together?
Are there ever circumstances under which it would be acceptable to use the different types of deception?
What are the five different types of deception, and how are they defined?
In Ayurvedic medicine, what regulates the actions of the body?
In Roger's terminology, what characteristics do fully functioning persons possess?
Is it possible for the onset of a major medical incident to alter or impede a person's personality development? What does this say about the Big Five factor theory of personality?
Personality types refer to a style of personality defined by a group of related traits. How valid is it to speak of personality types ?
Explain the molecular clock hypothesis and its utility in paleoanthropology.
Ben is described as highly competitive and achievement-oriented, but often angry and hostile when things do not go his way. Ben would be described as having a(n) __________ personality. (Fill in th...
Explain how each of the four personality theories view (a) The structure of the personality; (b) The role of the unconscious; (c) The concept of a conscience; (d) The developmental emphasis; and (...
Explain how each of the four personality theories view (a) The role of genetics; (b) The role of the environment; (c) Human nature; (d) Whether behavior is free or determined; and (e) Principal mo...
What are the types of individuals who could never be deterred and why? (For example, serial killers, superstar killers, morality killers, and suicide killers.)
What was the result of research done by researchers such as Jerome Kagan regarding genetic factors in a child's basic temperament? a. Children who are on the path to developing antisocial personali...
You are assigned to observe a nursing home for a total of 5 days. As you continue to observe, you notice how those who are in late adulthood react to you and their staff members. You overhear a con...
Mary prefers living in the country away from the noise and crowds of the city, but her sister Denise prefers the excitement and pace of city life. They differ in \rule{1in}{.2mm}. A. avoidance B...
As a baby, Inna was generally in a good mood, approached new people, and had a regular pattern of eating and sleeping. Inna most likely has a(n) ____ temperament.
Research on temperament suggests that ____. a. biological factors have a strong influence on temperament b. temperament is usually not modified by the environment c. the easy temperament always yie...
Fill in the blank with correct word/s. A person's unique and enduring behavior patterns define his or her \rule{1in}{.2mm}.
Fill in the blank with correct word/s. \rule{1in}{.2mm} are assumed to account for consistent behavior in diverse situations.
The characteristic ways in which we think, feel, and behave are referred to as our _____.
Trait theories are to _________ as behaviorist theories are to __________. a. experience; heritability. b. heritability; biology. c. external factors; internal factors. d. heritability; environment...
Jana is an easy baby who smiles and vocalizes frequently, which encourages her parents to smile and talk to her more. This, in turn, causes Jana to smile and interact with her parents more. This il...
Josh is a difficult baby who cries and is hard to console, which makes his parents unhappy and elicits negative parenting. This, in turn, causes Josh to cry more frequently. This illustrates: a. re...
Temperament refers to: a. the pattern of physical development from conception to death. b. the inherited, physical core of one's personality. c. the years of aging characterized by marked physiolog...
Who of the following researchers proposed that crystallized intelligence is a type of intelligence distinct from other types of intelligence? (a) Raymond Cattell (b) Howard Gardner (c) Robert Stern...
The existence of easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up children is considered evidence for a. early critical periods in development. b. lasting effects of the intrauterine environment. c. affecti...
Studies by Kagan, Thomas, and Chess indicate that newborn infants differ in sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, typical mood, and other aspects of a. intelligence. b. physical development...
Cattell and Horn define fluid intelligence as a measure of an individual's ability to solve problems, remember information, and reason in ways that are relatively uninfluenced by experience. Is the...
Which approach to personality may be useful in trying to account for the complexities of personality disorders? a. Allport's trait theory b. Eysenck's sixteen factor theory c. Cattell's three facto...
When Ana had her personality assessed, the interviewer showed her several ambiguous inkblots and asked her to describe what she saw. In this case Ana was completing: \\ a. a projective test b. th...
Angela is planning a research study for her doctoral dissertation. As part of the study, she wants to measure normal aspects of personality in each of the participants, using a measure that is obje...
Optimists perceive bad situations as welcome challenges and opportunities for learning. Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
Ruth recently lost $5,000 when the stock market took a downturn. As she discusses the bad news with her family, she says, 'It's all my fault. I've never been good at investing. I've ruined our fami...
When Cattell used mathematical analysis to identify basic personality traits, he identified a total of: \\ a. 3 key personality factors b. 100 different personality characteristics c. 16 source...
Raymond Cattell identified sixteen basic personality factors in his research. He called these: \\ a. central traits b. secondary traits c. cardinal traits d. source traits
Trait theories are most closely associated with the: a. psychodynamic approach b. humanistic approach c. psychometric approach d. social-cognitive approach
Cross-cultural studies of personality traits are most commonly interpreted to support _______. (a) Allport's trait theory (b) Cattell's source trait approach (c) Eysenck's superfactors approach (d)...
The distinguishing pattern of psychological characteristics that differentiate us from others and leads us to act consistently across situations is called: a. intelligence b. emotion c. personality...
Which theorist identified sixteen source traits using factor analysis? (a) Walter Mischel (b) Hans Eysenck (c) Gordon Allport (d) Raymond Cattell.
Who of the following is a trait theorist? (a) Maslow (b) Cattell (c) Freud (d) Rogers.
Michelle is extremely relaxed and secure, and she seldom appears self-conscious when she is around others. Based on the Big Five model of personality, Michelle would probably score: a. high in extr...
Steve likes to entertain friends at parties with "wire tricks." Suppose he takes a piece of wire 60 inches long and cuts it into two piece. Steve takes the first piece of wire and bends it into the...
One of the major points that Mischel made about personality is that people: a. often behave inconsistently within a situation b. often behave inconsistently across diverse situations c. usually...
The social-cognitive approach to personality is sometimes criticized for: a. adopting a view of human nature that is too pessimistic b. stressing the role of genetic influences while ignoring the...
To investigate the role of genetic factors in personality, researchers administered the MMPI to pairs of identical twins who had been reared apart and pairs of nonidentical twins who had been reare...
Fill in the blank(s) with the correct word. The distinguishing pattern of psychological characteristics that differentiate us from others and leads us to act consistently across situations is ........
Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to identify 16 basic personality factors, which he called source traits. Is the statement true or false?
Fill in the blank(s) with the correct word. Those with a(n) ................... personality seem to be immersed in a sea of perpetual self-imposed stress.
Some researchers suggest that the critical aspect of Type A behavior that relates to heart disease is: \\ a. working long hours b. the need to be in control c. the feeling that everything must b...
Rod is an impatient, highly competitive individual who is easily provoked into angry confrontations. He never seems to unwind or enjoy himself, and he frequently works late and comes into work on w...
Veronica is extremely satisfied with her current situation. She has been in her job for 12 months, and she gets along well with everyone. She is extremely patient when she explains new projects to...
Stephen is extremely ambitious. He has been in his current job for 12 months, and he has told everyone that if he doesn't get a promotion at his next evaluation, he will move on. He is always in a...
Tina is a straight-A student who insists all assignments be done perfectly and devotes all her attention to being the best student in every class. Tina quickly becomes impatient with anyone who doe...
In a study by Blumenthal and colleagues, men were assigned to one of two treatment conditions. Half the men were involved in aerobic activity, and the remainder engaged in nonaerobic strength-and-f...
Someone with a Type A personality would tend to be _______. (a) self-satisfied, patient, and relaxed (b) extroverted, open, and agreeable (c) neurotic, introverted, and impatient (d) hard driving,...
An individual who was hard-driving, ambitious, and impatient might be described as having _______. (a) a Type B personality (b) antisocial personality disorder (c) a Type C personality (d) a Type A...
Someone with a Type B personality would tend to be _______. (a) self-satisfied, patient, and relaxed (b) hard driving, ambitious, and impatient (c) extroverted, open, and agreeable (d) neurotic, in...
Which of the following is not true of someone with a Type A personality? (a) hard driving (b) impatient (c) relaxed (d) ambitious.
Fill in the blank. Those with a _________ personality seem to go through life without putting much pressure on themselves and maintaining a relaxed demeanor.
Indicate whether the statement is true or false \\ What are sometimes called the Type D personality characteristics are believed to be the most responsible for producing coronary artery disease.
A personality psychologist might have helped out in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina by \\ a. conducting research to determine the biological effects of stress from the storm. b. offering therap...
Karen sees herself as attractive, extroverted, and dependable. According to the humanistic approach, Karen's description of herself would be referred to as \\ a. her superego. b. her self-image....
Kiera, an HR executive, updates Mason, the accounts manager: "We have received 500 resumes for the position of accountants. It's gonna take forever to screen these. Any ideas?" Mason suggests, "Rul...
Which of the following notable events in psychology occurred LAST? a. The American Psychological Association was founded. b. Sigmund Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams. c. Carl Rogers pub...
Which of the following notable events in psychology occurred FIRST? a. The American Psychological Association was founded. b. Sigmund Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams. c. Carl Rogers pu...
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. About 40 percent of all newborns would be classified as difficult children, who are moody, intense, and easily angered.
Jeannette was an extremely shy child when she was two years old. However, by age five she was only mildly shy. This illustrates that a. inherited temperaments do not last after infancy. b. inherite...
Simone was a moderately shy infant whose very extroverted parents rarely gave her time to adapt to a new social situation before thrusting her into another one. This style of parenting led Simone t...
Forty percent of all newborns are classified as easy children, ten percent are classified as difficult, and about 15 percent are classified as slow-to-warm-up. How are the remaining 35 percent clas...
Helen's mother took three-year-old Helen to a birthday party in the neighborhood. Although her mother encouraged her to play with the other children, Helen did not say a word to any child but sat q...
From an early age, Justin tended to be a very moody child, who reacted intensely, often angrily, to most situations. Thomas and Chess would describe Justin as a(n) __________ child. a. easy b. slow...
Joey's mother was amazed by her two-year-old son. He was a very friendly, agreeable child who always seemed to be relaxed and in a good mood. Thomas and Chess would describe Joey as a(n) __________...
With regard to temperament, "difficult children" a. are restrained and unexpressive in their behavior. b. tend to be excessively shy. c. are moody, intense, and easily angered. d. do not fit neatly...
According to Thomas and Chess, the smallest percentage of children (10 percent) display what type of temperament? a. easy b. difficult c. slow-to-warm-up d. generic
According to Thomas and Chess, 40 percent of children display the most common type of temperament, which is the _____ temperament. a. easy b. difficult c. slow-to-warm-up d. generic
Easy temperament children would be characterized as a. being restrained and unexpressive. b. being relaxed and agreeable. c. being moody and intense. d. tending to overreact to stimulation.
In the classification system of Friedman and Rosenman, Type A personalities run a greater risk of a. Hypochondriasis. b. Cancer. c. Heart attacks. d. Mental illness.
Barbara is a college student who frequently strives to do two or more things simultaneously, evaluates herself in terms of the number of A's earned or awards won, grinds her teeth in her sleep, and...
The gradual molding of responses to a desired pattern is known as a. latent learning. b. fading. c. shaping. d. secondary reinforcement.
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Personality starts to stabilize at around age three and continues to "harden" through age 50.
By measuring personality at work, at school, and in therapy, we are able to a. describe only people's immediate behaviors b. predict how people will behave c. understand and establish cause-and-eff...
Dr. Balta is assessing a client's personality by using a rating scale. Dr. Balta's assessment most likely involves a. direct observation. b. a projective test. c. a personality questionnaire. d. th...
Helen's students would most likely use which of the following techniques to evaluate aspects of Helen's teaching behaviors as well as such personality traits as helpfulness and enthusiasm? a. perso...
Mike Simmons has recently applied for a position with Pfizer Pharmaceuticals. Which personality trait most likely has the strongest correlation to Mike's success as a pharmaceutical sales represent...
Eysenck sees the characteristics of personality as being related to the four types of temperament first recognized by the early Greeks. Which of the following is the correct match between the tempe...
Which of the following was an English psychologist who proposed the theory that many personality traits are related to whether one is introverted or extroverted and whether one tends to be emotiona...
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Raymond Cattell measured the visible features of personality, which he called surface traits, and found that these traits clustered together to form...
To assess personality, psychologists tend to use a. interviews. b. observation. c. questionnaires and projective tests. d. all of these in combination.
The behaviorists and the social learning theorists believe that the structure of the personality is formed by: a. traits. b. habits and expectancies. c. the id, ego and superego. d. the ideal self...
Graphology's validity is undeniable. Indicate whether this statement is true or false.
Describe the three main ways to demonstrate a test's validity in employment testing. What will be an ideal response?
Regarding the theories of personality, which of the following statements is False? a. Each theory has added to our understanding by providing a sort of lens through which human behavior can be vie...
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. For humanistic theorists, the ego ideal forms the structure of the personality, while in the behaviorist theories, self-concept forms the structure...
Tom and Maria are both outgoing in varying degrees. Tom can easily strike up a conversation with anyone. Maria is more likely to be outgoing with her friends. According to Cattell, if everyone has...
Novelty seeking has been studied in association with ____. a. serotonin transporter gene b. dopamine receptor gene c. high glucose levels d. low testosterone levels
One contribution of the social cognitive view to our understanding of personality is its emphasis on ____. a. the emotional factors involved in personality b. the development of personality c. on c...
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Classifying people into two or three types is more informative than rating people on a list of traits.
Taken together, all the research regarding the stability of personality traits across the lifespan seems to suggest that traits ____. a. definitely do change for most people across the lifespan b....
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. When desirable or undesirable characteristics of personality are evaluated, we refer to this as assessing a person's temperament.
Huang is very high in competitiveness, Brad is very high in hostility, and Sven is high in time urgency. All other things being equal, which, if any, of the three is most at risk for heart disease?...
Your friend believes that Type A personalities are more likely to suffer heart attacks. You can tell him that ____. a. what you learned in your psychology class supports that belief b. more recent...
The hereditary aspects of one's emotional nature, including sensitivity, prevailing mood, and distractibility, are referred to as one's:
According to behavioral personality theorists, the external conditions that strongly influence behavior are known as ______ determinants.
To group a person's numerous surface traits into 16 source traits, Raymond Cattell used a statistical procedure called __________.
How do Eysenck's personality dimensions and Hippocrates personality types relate to each other?
The disease-prone personality is characterized by a. mania. b. extraversion. c. hostility. d. Type-B attributes.
Debbie would be described as a person who is bold, independent, and is comfortable with change. She loves to travel to new and exotic places as well as participating in exciting activities, such as...
Darrius is a college student, who enjoys going to wild, "uninhibited" parties and getting high on marijuana. He also enjoys riding his motorcycle fast and wants to be an EMT after college. Darrius...
Persons low in sensation seeking tend to: a. enjoy the company of others. b. be more likely to smoke. c. prefer sour and crunchy foods. d. be more likely to engage in casual unprotected sex.
Persons high in sensation seeking tend to be more likely to: a. smoke. b. engage in substance abuse. c. engage in casual unprotected sex. d. do all of these.
A hardy personality has traits typical of the Type A personality, but is resistant to stress. True or false?
If you are imaginative, we automatically know that you will be inventive, original, curious, creative, innovative, and ingenious. Thus, according to Raymond Cattell being imaginative would be consi...
Raymond Cattell called the core of a person's personality, that is, the person's underlying personality characteristics, _____ traits, or factors. a. surface b. source c. common d. cardinal
Cattell used a statistical technique called factor analysis to reduce a large number of visible traits into 16 _____ traits, or factors. a. surface b. source c. common d. cardinal
Raymond Cattell used his Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) to identify a person's _____ traits. a. cardinal b. surface c. source d. primary and secondary
A person who has a sense of personal commitment to self, work and family; who feels that he or she has control over their lives and their work; and who has the tendency to see life as a series of c...
Freud became interested in the study of personality when he realized that a. the cause of his patients' problems seemed to be more emotional than physical. b. the treatment of psychological disorde...
The dominant approach to the study of personality is currently the _____ approach. a. trait b. psychodynamic c. behaviorist d. humanistic
Raymond Cattell referred to the visible features of one's personality as \rule{1in}{.2mm} traits. A. source B. surface C. common D. central
Bart is described as hard driving, highly competitive, and achievement-oriented. He tends to race the clock in a self-imposed urgency and gets angry when "things do not go as planned.". Bart would...
People who take a more laid-back approach to life are considered _____ personalities. a. extroverted b. introverted c. Type A d. Type B
______ sees good events as _____, while _____ sees those same events as _____. a. An optimist; permanent; a pessimist; temporary b. A pessimist; permanent; an optimist; temporary c. An optimist; go...
People who have personality traits that increase their chance of suffering a heart attack are considered _____ personalities. a. extroverted b. introverted c. Type A d. Type B
According to research done by Julie Norem, people who are defensive pessimists _____. a. perform better when people encourage them to be more optimistic b. harness their anxiety in ways that help t...
The main difference between Allport's classification of traits and Cattell's classification of traits is that a. Allport classified traits subjectively, while Cattell used a statistical approach....
Which of the following is not an explanatory style described by Martin Seligman? a. permanence b. pervasiveness c. personalization d. persuasion
Personality traits are inferred from past behavior and allow us to _____ behavior. a. explain b. learn from c. justify d. predict
Riley flunked the midterm and tells everyone it's the teacher's fault. He didn't study because he knew it was just a waste of time. After all, he knew the "teacher had it in for him." Riley demonst...
If you like studying in groups where there is more socializing and a higher noise level, you are probably a. more of an introvert. b. more of an extrovert. c. a Type A personality. d. a Type B pers...
Informally, we tend to place people into categories, such as the "executive type," the "athletic type," and the "motherly type.". If you tried to define these informal types, you would probably a....
The term character refers to a. the hereditary aspects of one's emotional nature. b. unique and enduring behavior patterns. c. favorable and unfavorable personal characteristics. d. one's temperame...
Defensive pessimists tend to achieve success by _____. a. over-preparing b. rechecking their work c. anticipating problems in advance d. all of the above
A personality type is a. a style of personality defined by a group of related qualities. b. a stable, enduring quality that a person shows in most situations. c. the hereditary aspect of a person's...
A style of personality defined by a group of related characteristics is called a. character. b. a temperamental quality. c. a personality type. d. a personality trait.
Regarding personality traits, which of the following statements is false? a. Personality traits are inferred from one's behavior. b. We are less likely to predict that a person will be successful...
A stable, enduring quality that a person shows in most situations is a. self-esteem. b. a personality type. c. a personality trait. d. a somatotype.
A subjective evaluation of a person is referred to as a. personality. b. character. c. temperament. d. a trait critique.
According to Seligman, optimists tend to give credit to themselves for good events and blame others or external causes for bad events. a. True b. False
Which of the following statements pertains to character as opposed to personality? a. "Eddie is a good guy. He's honest and dependable." b. "Judy tends to be withdrawn. She rarely enjoys being wit...
The term personality refers to a. the hereditary aspects of one's emotional nature. b. unique and enduring behavior patterns. c. favorable and unfavorable personal characteristics. d. charisma,...
In psychology, the term personality implies that individual patterns of behavior are both a. universal and inherited. b. desirable and undesirable. c. unique and stable. d. complimentary and di...
When desirable or undesirable characteristics of personality are evaluated, we are assessing a. temperament. b. character. c. personality types. d. popular stereotypes.
A defensive pessimist is someone whose early negative childhood experiences results in their tendency to become overwhelmed and ineffective in complex situations. a. True b. False
Which of the following used factor analysis to reduce a large number of surface traits into 16 source traits, or factors? a. Gordon Allport b. Abraham Maslow c. Raymond Cattell d. Julian Rotter
To reduce the large number of surface traits to 16 source traits, Raymond Cattell used a statistical technique known as a. factor analysis. b. the Likert scale. c. cumulative analysis. d. situa...
The source traits identified by Cattell can be measured using a test known as the a. MMPI-2. b. 16 PF. c. TAT. d. WAIS.
The 16 Personality Factor (16 PF) test was developed by a. Gordon Allport. b. Albert Bandura. c. Raymond Cattell. d. Carl Jung.
To look for connections among traits, Cattell used a statistical technique that correlated multiple measurements and identified the general underlying factors. This technique is called a. factor a...
According to Rentfrow and Gosling, people who are cheerful, conventional, extroverted, reliable, helpful, and conservative tend to enjoy a. rap/hip-hop, soul/funk, and electronic/dance music. b....
The trait approach would be used to identify a. the possible selves that one can choose from based on his or her character profile. b. stable qualities a person shows in most situations. c. situ...
Which theories seek to describe personality in terms of a small number of underlying personality factors? a. trait b. psychodynamic c. behaviorist d. humanistic
An adjective checklist would most likely be used by a a. psychodynamic therapist. b. behaviorist. c. humanistic therapist. d. trait theorist.
Regarding personality types, which of the following statements is false? a. Two categories or even several are often inadequate to fully capture differences in personality. b. Rating people on a...
In their eight-year study, Friedman and Rosenman found twice the rate of heart disease in a. hypochondriacs. b. persons with conversion disorders. c. Type A personalities. d. Type B personaliti...
One problem psychologists have with using personality types is they a. are hereditary constructs. b. oversimplify personality. c. describe character, not personality. d. are not observable or m...
Classifying people as having either a Type A or Type B personality has been used to predict a. competency as a parent. b. chances of suffering a heart attack. c. success in education. d. chance...
Characteristic traits of Type A people include a. worry, accompanied by decreased activity and exercise. b. a tendency to be mobile, inconsistent, and desirous of change. c. poor attention span...
Friedman and Rosenman referred to those people who were unlikely to have a heart attack as a. Type A personalities. b. Type B personalities. c. individuals with a psychosomatic illness. d. indi...
According to Friedman and Rosenman, which of the following tend to be hard driving, ambitious, highly competitive, achievement-oriented, and striving? a. Type A personalities b. Type B personalit...
Jen talks, walks, and eats rapidly. She often agrees to do more things than she has time for because she believes that with enough effort she can overcome any obstacle. Jen would probably be classi...
As a Type A personality, Peter would be unusually prone to a. approach-avoidance conflicts. b. hypochondriasis. c. acculturative stress. d. a psychosomatic disorder, such as heart disease.
According to Friedman and Rosenman, which of the following believe that with enough effort they can overcome any obstacle, and they "push" themselves accordingly? a. Type A personalities b. Type...
Regarding the Type A personality, which of the following statements is false? a. One study of Type A personalities found that 15 percent of a group of 25-year-old doctors and lawyers who scored hi...
According to research, the most lethal factor of Type A behavior appears to be a. overworking. b. hostility. c. competitiveness. d. a sense of time urgency.
While Type A behavior appears to promote heart disease, which of the following may be what triggers a heart attack? a. overworking b. being achievement-oriented c. depression or distress d. a s...
Regarding the Type A personality, which of the following statements is false? a. The best way to avoid the self-made stress of a Type A personality is to adopt the opposite characteristics. b. Wh...
A hardy personality a. is another name for a Type B personality. b. has traits typical of the Type A personality, but is resistant to stress. c. is another name for the Type C personality. d. u...
Hardy personalities are strong in a. commitment, finding ways of turning whatever they are doing into something that seems interesting and important. b. control and are less likely to see themsel...
A personality theory must include a. connotative meanings. b. somatotypic guidelines. c. statistical assessment techniques. d. concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles.
Because two categories (or even several) are often inadequate to fully capture differences in personality, which of the following tends to be more informative than classifying persons into two or t...
A system of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles proposed to explain people's unique and relatively stable behavior patterns is called a. the law of inherited temperaments. b. somatotypic...
The four approaches to personality covered by the text include all following except a. psychodynamic. b. humanistic. c. transactional analysis. d. trait.
Which of the following is not related to optimism? a. dealing with problems head-on b. less stress and better health c. effective use of defense mechanisms d. hardiness and happiness
To understand personality, trait theorists attempt to a. discover how the various traits were learned in early childhood. b. increase the number of basic traits that have been identified. c. cla...
Compared to optimists, pessimists a. tend to deal with problems head-on b. are less likely to be stopped by temporary setbacks. c. are more likely to ignore problems. d. tend to take better car...
Dr. Woody attributes differences in personality primarily to such factors as culture, mental processes, and one's expectations about environmental situations. Dr. Woody emphasizes which theories of...
Eysenck believed that the characteristics of personality were related to four types of temperament, melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic, and sanguine, which were first recognized by a. the Romans....
Which of the following first classified people as Type A and Type B personalities? a. Holmes and Rahe b. Friedman and Rosenman c. Dollard and Miller d. Beck and Greenberg
Four types of temperament recognized by the early Greeks are sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, and a. manic. b. melancholic. c. somatic. d. anxious.
Eysenck sees the characteristics of personality as being related to the four types of temperament first recognized by the early Greeks. Which of the following is not one of those four types? a. me...
Type A people have a strong sense of time urgency. Indicate whether this statement is true or false.
Type A behaviors are often rewarded by organizations. Indicate whether this statement is true or false.
Jake tends to be overly suspicious; Petra is very dependent on others, and Barry thinks so highly of himself that he would be described as self-loving. All of these individuals appear to suffer fro...
According to behavioural personality theorists, what is predictable about personality is that people tend to a. react in an angry and aggressive manner when frustrated. b. be dominated by their inb...
Rita can be described as an ambitious individual. She joined Atlas Corporation as a junior recruiter and wants to climb the corporate ladder to become a team leader in the future. Rita works hard t...
According to behavioural personality theorists, hostility, generosity, or destructive impulses a. arise in the unconscious. b. are acquired through conditioning and reinforcement. c. are strongly i...
Behaviourists would describe personality as a. an expression of conflicting psychological forces. b. a collection of learned patterns of behaviour. c. the impact of culture on an innate hierarchy o...
Personality is acquired through classical and operant conditioning, observational learning, reinforcement, extinction, generalization, and discrimination, according to the a. psychodynamic theorist...
Which of the following theorists favour substituting "stable learned responses" for "traits" in order to explain a person's actions? a. neo-Freudians b. strict psychoanalysts c. strict learning the...
Marisa feels that she is being too careless and carefree at college, so she imagines herself studying more, getting to class on time, and getting good grades. Marisa also listens to the stories of...
Which personality theory emphasizes that one's actions are always a product of both prior learning and the situation in which we find ourselves? (a) behavioral theory (b) humanistic theory (c) psyc...
Which of the following base their theories on scientific research and have been accused of approaching personality as if people are robots? a. behaviourists b. psychoanalysts c. humanists d. trait...
Which theorists explain personality through concepts, such as learning, imitation, and reinforcement? (a) trait theorists (b) humanistic theorists (c) behaviorists and social learning theorists (d)...
Explain whether the following statement is true or false. Extraverts are less likely to emerge as leaders in task-related groups when compared to introverts.
Regarding personality traits and how students approach college life, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. Personality traits slowly change as people age with people becoming more agreeabl...
Amy is an independent, aggressive, unemotional businesswoman, while Carol tends to be vain, emotional, irrational, and dependent. Which of the following would be likely to occur in judging normalit...
Our personalities are shaped by the stories we tell about ourselves, according to _______. (a) the personal fable theory (b) the narrative approach (c) the projective approach (d) situational testi...
Dollard and Miller agreed with Freud that a. much of our behaviour is unconscious. b. the first six years of life are crucial to personality development. c. to be a fully functioning person, one mu...
Social reinforcement has a strong influence on personality development because it _______. (a) is made up of interactions that expand one's psychosexual development (b) is made up of praise, attent...
In the behavioristic view of development, the core of personality is shaped by early learning experiences and by praise, attention, and approval from others, which is also called _______. (a) congr...
Learning principles, modelling, thought patterns, perceptions, expectations, beliefs, goals, emotions, and social relationships are combined in which theory of personality? a. social learning theor...
According to the text, early behaviourists overlooked a crucial element in their theories of personality, which is the fact that a. much of behaviour is affected by the situation in which it occurs...
Carol gets angry whenever she is delayed, such as being in a traffic jam, but she does not get angry when she misplaces items. Her younger sister Janice does not get angry when she is delayed but d...
The core of personality is shaped by early learning experiences and by social reinforcement, according to _______ view of development. (a) humanist (b) behaviorist (c) psychoanalytic (d) trait theo...
According to Miller and Dollard, permissiveness for sexual and aggressive behaviour in childhood a. is linked to adult needs for power. b. forms a person's attitudes toward cleanliness, conformity,...
According to the behaviourists, which of the following involves learning socially defined "male" and "female" gender roles, which affect personality development? a. sex training b. organismic valui...
According to the behaviourists, which critical situation can affect later social relationships because the child learns to associate people with pleasure or with frustration and discomfort as well...
Regarding the critical situation of feeding, a child who is allowed to cry without being fed learns to a. be aggressive. b. actively manipulate their parents. c. be passive. d. develop self-efficac...
Regarding the critical situation of feeding, if children are fed when they cry, it encourages them to a. be aggressive toward others. b. actively manipulate their parents. c. passively accept situa...
Kerstein is quiet and shy, although she is less quiet and shy when she is at family gatherings than when she is in her college class. This example of Kearstein supports the concept of a. situationa...
If you believe that behaviour is strongly influenced by personality traits or lasting personal dispositions, whether biological or learned, then you would most likely agree with which statement? a....
With respect to the influence of traits and situations on behaviour, it is most accurate to say that the two a. interact. b. counteract. c. are independent. d. are secondary.
According to studies of the influence of heredity and environment on personality traits, heredity appears to be responsible for what percent of the variation in many personality traits? a. less tha...
A person states that most people he has known for several years have pretty much the same personalities now as they did when he first met them. This person believes that the behaviour of the people...
A person states that the reason people in some professions, such as teachers, lawyers, or doctors, seem so much alike is that their work requires that they act in particular ways. This person belie...
External circumstances influence the expression of a personality trait, according to _______. (a) behavioral genetics determinants theory (b) behavioral factor analysis (c) trait-situation interact...
Regarding the influence of traits and situations on people's behaviors, which of the following statements is false? (a) Personality traits tend to be too inconsistent to predict such things as job...
Regarding how personality develops through the life span, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. Newborn babies differ in temperament, which implies that this aspect of personality is hered...
Personality starts to stabilize around age three and continues to "harden" through age a. 20. b. 30. c. 40. d. 50.
Which of the following two theories stress the role of learning and life experiences in personality development? (a) trait theory and psychoanalytic theory (b) behavioral theory and humanistic theo...
Which of the following is an infant's biological predispositions to be sensitive, irritable, distractible, and to display a typical mood and which have a large impact on how the infant interacts wi...
The hereditary aspects of one's emotional nature, including one's sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and prevailing mood, are referred to as one's a. possible self. b. temperament. c. char...
Personality starts to stabilize around age a. three. b. seven. c. 11. d. 20.
Which of the following two theories stress the role of inherited biological predispositions in personality development? (a) trait theory and psychoanalytic theory (b) behavioral theory and humanist...
Temperament refers to _______. (a) charisma or character (b) unique and enduring behavior patterns (c) learned traits of emotional response (d) hereditary emotional traits.
Regarding behaviour modification, explain how aversion therapy and systematic desensitization are both based on classical conditioning, and discuss how each procedure is carried out; and list and d...
Tom is convinced that he will be a famous rock star. In fact, he is not shy about telling people what a great guitarist he is and how they better get his autograph now. Tom most likely suffers from...
Indicate whether this statement is true or false. \\ Test validity in employment testing is demonstrated through criterion validity and content validity.
People with high multicultural competence tend to be high in cognitive complexity. a. True b. False
Qualities known to be characteristic of the authoritarian personality are measured by the a. ethnic scale. b. F scale. c. Type A scale. d. power scale.
The F scale is used to measure qualities related to a. the antisocial personality. b. aggressiveness and its effects on one's health. c. the authoritarian personality. d. passive compliance.
Regarding the authoritarian personality, which of the following statements is false? a. As children, most people who show an authoritarian personality were severely punished, and, as a result, lea...
"If you agree that people can be divided into the weak and the strong," or that "If people talked less and worked more, everybody would be better off," your personality would be described as a. co...
Psychological hardiness is characterized by a. youth, commitment, and control. b. youth, control, and challenge. c. the challenge, commitment, and control. d. challenge, contraction, and control.
Sigmund Freud developed which of the following modern approaches? a. behavioural b. humanistic c. cognitive d. psychoanalytic
Tony and Julie describe their newborn, Carson, as happy and cheerful, with regular sleeping and eating habits, and the ability to adapt quickly. Carson has a(n) [{Blank}] temperament. a. easy b. op...
A baby who is more withdrawn, moody, and tends to take more time to adapt to new situations has a(n) ____ temperament. a. easy. b. difficult. c. slow-to-warm-up. d. moderate.
An infant's characteristic mood, activity level, and attention span are referred to as components of the infant's: a. temperament. b. personality. c. genotype. d. phenotype.
A baby who is fussy and fearful of a new situation has a ____ temperament. a. negative. b. difficult. c. slow-to-warm-up. d. pessimistic.
A researcher wants to determine the common personality traits that can be used to describe all people would most likely use [{Blank}]. a. case studies b. factor analysis c. experiments d. naturalis...
What did personality researchers Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck have in common? They both used [{Blank}] to determine the important personality traits. a. experiments b. case studies c. naturalis...
Human personality appears to be the product of [{Blank}]. a. an unknown factor that researchers have been unable to identify b. many genes and multiple environmental events c. genes involved in the...
Social comparison theory predicts when: a. a comparable team in your organization performs similarly or better than your team, and the identity of your team is threatened. b. teams will harm or dis...
Individuals who see themselves as worthwhile, capable, and acceptable have: A) high organization commitment. B) high extraversion. C) high self-esteem. D) high self-efficacy.
An individual's personality is determined by: A) heredity. B) situational factors. C) environment. D) all of the above.
Personality tests assess an applicant's traits and temperaments and help firms determine an individual's leadership and teamwork skills. a. True b. False
In psychology, the term personality means: a. a fixed way of responding to other people that is based on our inherited emotional makeup b. a combination of long-lasting and distinctive behaviors,...
What do theories of personality do? a. They tell us how early childhood experiences affect our personality. b. Theories of personality just describe why we are the way we are. c. Theories attemp...
If you study people's distinctive behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that influence our reactions and adaptation, then you're studying: a. traits b. personality c. motivation
What is defined as the combination of lasting and distinctive behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that typify how we react and adapt to other people and situations?
What is the main focus in the study of personality? (a) traits (b) id, ego, and superego (c) unconscious conflicts and self-actualization (d) behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions.
What are reliability and validity, and why are they of critical importance to personality testing?
Which approach to personality stresses the achievement of human potential and personal growth? a. Social-cognitive. b. Humanistic. c. Psychodynamic. d. Trait.
One major difference between trait theory and social cognitive theory is that trait theory: a. describes rather than explains behavior b. deals more directly with the subconscious c. has had lit...
Which names are most associated with trait theory of personality? a. Richard Lazarus and Simon Binet b. Walter Mischel and Julian Rotter c. Gordon Allport and Raymond Cattell d. Albert Bandura a...
An approach aimed at understanding the structure of personality by measuring, identifying, and analyzing differences in personality is called: a. social cognitive theory b. cognitive-behavioral...
Using personality characteristics that are relatively stable and enduring to explain behavior is called: a. the trait approach b. the cognitive-social approach c. the psychodynamic approach d....
Which of the following is an accurate evaluation of the genetic influences on traits? a. Data for the five-factor model give a complete portrait of personality. b. 40 to 50% of the development of p...
Personality tests with specific written statements that require clients to respond with a limited range of answers are called a. objective tests b. factor analyses c. projective tests d. heritabili...
__________ guides, directs, and gives order to one's actions. A) Discipline B) Government C) Obligation D) Principles
The person-situation interaction supports the trait approach to personality. Is the statement true or false?
Personality is [{Blank}]. a. a manner of acting characterized by uniqueness and appeal b. a collection of characteristics that defines how a person behaves in different situations c. the part of a...
Marion is an easy-going, laid back person. She does not rush to meet deadlines and does not put pressure on herself. Marion would be considered to have a [{Blank}]. a. hardy personality b. sense of...
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Learning theorists focus on enduring personality characteristics.
The trait approach to personality assumes that traits are [{Blank}]. a. inherited and remain stable over time b. inherited and change over time c. learned and remain stable over time d. learned and...
The idea that people's personalities result from the way they perceive environmental events is most consistent with what perspective of personality? a. psychoanalytic theory b. trait theory c. soci...
Soledad is extremely careful at all times. She is sensitive to criticism, emotionally detached, and very serious. Soledad would be considered a _____. a. hardy personality b. Type C personality c....
A person who is described as patient, relaxed, and good-natured would be considered a _____. a. Type A personality b. Type B personality c. hardy personality d. strong personality
Which of the following is a characteristic of a Type A personality? a. competitive b. mellow c. friendly d. good-natured
Raymond Cattell determined that there were 16 basic traits that could describe differences in personality. He called these [{Blank}] traits. a. source b. cardinal c. primary d. secondary
Using Raymond Cattell's terminology, we should expect that [{Blank}]. a. cardinal traits do not really exist b. central traits define most people c. surface traits are more numerous than source tra...
Whereas Freud focused on the scientific goal of [{Blank}], trait theorists focus on the goal of [{Blank}]. a. prediction; control b. explanation; description c. control; explanation d. observation;...
Describe someone who is Type A, Type B, and Type D. Consider how has our view of Type A changed since the decade of the 1970s. What will be an ideal response?
What do we call the tendency to always expect the worst? A) Pessimism B) Idealism C) Optimism D) Naivet
A theory that divides human behavior into two basic traits, introversion, and extraversion, was probably formulated by a __________ psychologist. a. developmental. b. personality. c. human factors...
The study of human traits and characteristics is of interest to __________ psychologists. a. clinical. b. personality. c. community. d. social.
A relatively stable personality trait that leads to believing and expecting that good things will happen is: a. pessimism b. optimism c. exhibiting an internal locus of control d. a hardy person
A relatively stable personality trait that leads to believing and expecting that bad things will happen is: a. pessimism b. optimism c. exhibiting an internal locus of control d. a hardy person
The famous "Type A Behavior" research attempted to relate certain personality traits to: a. hardy personality b. locus of control c. increased risk of cancer d. increased risk of heart attack
A Type D person experiences chronic distress through negative emotions and social inhibition. True or false?
True or False: \\ Personality psychologists study the interaction of people and the environment.
If a psychological trait is thought to be polygenic, it is influenced by only one gene. Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
Sigmund Freud was the first to develop a \rule{1in}{.2mm} theory of personality. A. behavioral B. psychodynamic C. humanistic D. cognitive
Reasonably stable patterns of actions, feelings, and motives are referred to as A. cognitions. B. lability. C. personality. D. emotions.
Constantino is a young teenager in high school. Which personality change is Constantino most likely to undergo over the next ten years? a. He will constantly change his values and beliefs. b. He wi...
Who was the earliest person associated with the trait approach? a. Sigmund Freud b. Jean Piaget c. Platon Euclid d. Argos Hippocrates
Jessica is observed to be gloomy and pensive. She could be described as a. sanguine. b. choleric. c. phlegmatic. d. melancholic.
Personality characteristics that can be inferred from observable behaviors are called a. traits. b. categories. c. factors. d. influences.
Jenny says, "If I had only finished college and gone to work for a big company, today I would be a CEO and the envy of my friends and family." Jenny is referring to her ________ self. A) public B)...
The humanistic approach is similar to learning theories in that they both have little to say about: a. the development of traits and personalities. b. circular explanations of behavior. c. consciou...
A person with Type A behavior (blank). (a) is not always in a hurry (b) gets a heart attack at an early age (c) is impatient and angry (d) wants success at any price
Even if you do not feel so confident about handling a given situation, if you behave as if you are confident, your self-confidence will often increase. Indicate whether the statement is true or fal...
When applying the Golden Personality Type Profiler to learning, ________ individuals prefer to concentrate on logical analysis, whereas ________ individuals prefer to focus on understanding and har...
Fill in the blank(s) the with correct word. The characteristic ways in which we think, feel, and behave are referred to as ours[{Blank}].
The perfectionistic type of workaholic is fun to work with because he or she readily turns over the control of projects to others. Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
Your personal communication style is such a key aspect of your behavior that it is a major component of your personality. Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. \\ Developing psychological hardiness refers to experiencing a high degree of commitment, control, and challenge.
Biological factors found to be associated with mood disorders include which of the following? a. neuroticism, a heritable trait b. sociability, a heritable trait c. the overutilization of dopamin...
Theories allow psychologists to make ................, such as a client's chance of recovery. a. descriptions b. explanations c. predictions d. beliefs
An individual's personal characteristics, like good looks or friendly personality, represent one of the dimensions of the status characteristics theory. Indicate whether the statement is true or fa...
Valerie Sinclair, a climate campaigner at an environmental organization, invariably uses rationale to make decisions for project implementation. She believes that the right decisions can be made on...
Who defined personality as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine a person's unique adjustments to his/her environment? A) Leon Festinger B) D...
Which of the following does the heredity approach state? A) An individual's personality is determined by the social background one is brought up in. B) An individual's personality is determined b...
According to Gordon Allport, ________ is defined as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine a person's unique adjustments to his/her environmen...
Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are most likely to be noticed in a group. Which of the following statements best describes the reason behind this? A) Our perception of reality depe...
Personality assessments have been increasingly used in diverse organizational settings. Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
Which personality characteristic appears to be associated with cancer incidence? a. A tendency to be depressed. b. Being introspective. c. Being results-oriented. d. Suppressing or denying anger.
Evidence of the relationship between personality and cancer is best summarized as ____. a. nonexistent. b. limited to breast cancer and suppression of negative emotions. c. fairly broad in that per...
The humanistic view of personality differs from the social cognitive view of personality in that the humanistic view _____.
Which of the following is true of trait theory? a. It does not adequately explain why we behave a certain way. b. It lacks reliable measurement methods. c. It places too much emphasis on the inf...
________ believed that personality is greatly influenced by individual and personal choices centering around the self. (a) Sigmund Freud (b) Carl Rogers (c) Julian Rotter (d) Gordon Allport.
Which of the following mood dimensions is a pure marker of high negative affect? A) depression B) relaxation C) fatigue D) boredom E) nervousness
The study of human traits and characteristics is of interest to _______ psychologists. (a) clinical (b) community (c) personality (d) social.
Dr. Raneri is studying which personality traits are not good for our health. Dr. Raneri is most likely to find
Explain the relationship between Type C personality and cancer.
According to the ________ theories, the personality is characterized by a dynamic struggle or conflict. (a) trait (b) psychodynamic (c) learning (d) humanistic.
Priscilla is a psychologist. When she says that someone has a "personality," what is she referring to? a. The person's lively and bubbly demeanor. b. The person's tendency to act shyly in some situ...
Reasonably stable patterns of actions, feelings, and motives are referred to as: a. cognitions. b. personality. c. lability. d. emotions.
Discuss the differences between the learning theory perspective and the humanistic perspective of personality. What will be an ideal response?
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