## First Law of Thermodynamics Questions and Answers

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A nozzle is a device for increasing the velocity of a steadily flowing stream. At the inlet to a certain nozzle, the enthalpy of the fluid passing is 3,000 kJ/kg and the velocity is 60 m/s. At the...

Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics? a. Delta E = E_final - E_initial. b. 1 cal = 4.184 J (exactly). c. A negative Delta H corresponds to an exothermic process....

Which of Jessie's statements correctly describes the relationship among the kinetic, internal, and total energies of the system in this scenario (initial speed is 1.0 m/s and the coefficient of fri...

A roller coaster car sits at rest at the top of 40 m hill (y = 40 m). The zero line for this problem is located at the bottom of the hill (y = 0). a) What is the change in potential energy as car m...

In large gas-turbine power plants, the air is preheated by the exhaust gases in a heat exchanger called the regenerator before it enters the combustion chamber. Air enters the regenerator at 1 MPa...

6 moles of an ideal gas trapped in the closed system by a piston which is fixed by stops as described in the drawing. The system is in thermal contact with the environment. At a certain moment the...

How do you calculate induced vector norms of a simple real matrix? Specifically, how do you do the induced 1-norm, induced infinity norm, and the induced Frobenius norm of a matrix?

How can you calculate the molar delta U and work (w) for the combustion reaction of 1.199 moles of naphthalene (C10H8) at 298K, which releases 48.19 kJ of heat, in a constant-volume bomb calorimeter?

How much heat transfer (in kJ) is necessary to raise the temperature of a 0.230 kg piece of ice from - 18.0 degrees C to 132 degrees C, including the energy needed for phase changes? (Assume the su...

A 50 kg athlete running at speed v grabs a light rope that hangs from a 10-meter-high platform and swings to a maximum of 1.8 m above the ground. Later, a 100 kg athlete, running at the same speed,...

Three gas-phase reactions were run in a constant-pressure piston apparatus as illustrated. For each reaction, give the balanced reaction and predict the sign of w (the work done) for the reaction....

You have a 1.00-mole sample of water at -30^(\circ)C, and you heat it until you have gaseous water at 140^(\circ)C. Calculate q for the entire process. Use the following data: Specific heat capacit...

A gas is taken through the cyclic process shown in the below figure. For one complete cycle, how much heat Q is transferred to the system given the points of interest shown in the chart?

According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy cannot be destroyed. So why, then, is there an energy crisis threatening the world due to energy usage?

Calculate the energy required to heat 1.00 kg of ethane gas (C2H6) from 25^o C to 75^o C, first under constant volume and then at a constant pressure of 2.00 atm. Also, calculate delta E, delta H,...

An ideal gas is enclosed in a piston, and exactly 2100 J of work is done on the gas. As this happens, the internal energy of the gas increases by exactly 700 J. During this process, how much heat f...

One mole of a monatomic ideal gas (for which S^{\circ} = 8.00 J K^{-1} mol^{-1} at -73.0^{\circ}C) was heated at a constant pressure of 2.00 atm from -73.0 ^{\circ}C~to~ 27.0^{\circ}C

Calculate w and delta E when 1 mole of a liquid is vaporized at its boiling point (80 degree C) and 1.00 atm pressure. delta Hvap for the liquid is 30.7 kJ mol^-1 at 80 degree C.

Derive the equation for the First Law of Thermodynamics from the equation CP=CV+R.

A piston-cylinder assembly contains 2.5 kg of saturated refrigerant R-134a with a quality of 10 % at 0 degrees C (State 1). There is a linear spring mounted on the piston such that when the mixture...

Consider the isothermal expansion of 1.00 mole of ideal gas at 27 degree C. The volume increases from 30.0 L to 40.0 L. Calculate q, w, deltaE, deltaH, deltaS, and deltaG for two situations: a. a f...

In the equation w = -PDeltaV, why is there a negative sign?

Predict the signs of q and w for the process of boiling water.

A system undergoes a process consisting of the following two steps: Step 1: The system absorbs 72 J of heat while 35 J of work is done on it. Step 2: The system absorbs 35 J of heat while performin...

What does ''temperature'' measure? What is ''heat''? Is ''heat'' the same as temperature?

For the process H_2 O (l) to H_2O (g) at 298 K and 1.0 atm, Delta H is more positive than Delta E by 2.5 kJ/mol. What does the 2.5 kJ/mol quantity represent?

Calculate q, w, Delta E, and Delta H for the process in which 88.0 g of nitrous oxide gas (N_2O) is cooled from 165 degrees C to 55 degrees C at a constant pressure of 5.00 atm.

One mole of H_2O (g) at 1.00 atm and 100 degrees C occupies a volume of 30.6 L. When 1 mole of H_2O (g) is condensed to 1 mole of H_2O (l) at 1.00 atm and 100 degrees C, 40.66 kJ of heat is release...

A green plant synthesizes glucose by photosynthesis. Animals use glucose as a source of energy. If it is assumed that both of these processes occur to the same extent in a cyclic process, what ther...

A balloon filled with 313 g of helium has a volume of 1910. L at 1.00 atm (Molar Heat Capacity = 20.8 J C-1 mol-1). The temperature of this balloon is decreased by 41.6 C as the volume decreases to...

Consider the following cyclic process carried out in two steps on a gas: Step 1: 45 J of heat is added to the gas, and 10. J of expansion work is performed. Step 2: 60. J of heat is removed from th...

Determine the resistivity and drift current density of a given semiconductor (a) with a donor concentration of 4.4 times 10^15 cm^-3 (b) with acceptor impurity of 4.4 times 10^14 cm^-3. For a give...

The molar enthalpy of vaporization of water at 373 K is 41.16 kJ/mol. What fraction of this energy is used to change the internal energy of the water, and what fraction is used to do work against t...

Air enters the compressor of a gas-turbine plant at ambient conditions of 100 kPa and 25 degrees C with a low velocity and exits at 1 MPa and 347 degrees C with a velocity of 90 m/s. The compressor...

A person living in a 3 m times 4 m times 3 m room turns on a 100 W fan before he leaves the warm room at 100 kPa and 30 degrees C, hoping that the room will be cooler when he comes back after 4 hou...

Calculate the internal energy change of a piston that expands against 1.00 atm of pressure from 11.2 L to 29.1 L. In the process, 1037 J of heat is absorbed.

Calculate the internal energy change of a piston is compressed from a volume of 8.30 L to 2.80 L against a constant pressure of 1.90 atm. In the process, there is a heat gain by the system of 350 J.

A system releases 125 kJ of heat, and 104 kJ of work is done on it. Calculate \Delta E.

When a system is taken from state a to state b, in the figure below, along the path a c b, 80 J of heat flows into the system, and the system does 30 J of work. How much heat flows into the system...

Under constant pressure, the temperature of 2.00 mol of an ideal monatomic gas is raised 15.0 K. What are (a) the work W done on the gas, (b)the energy transferred as heat Q, and (c) the change \...

A piston having 7.23 g of steam at 110 C increases its temperature by 35 C. At the same time, it expands from a volume of 2.00 L to 8.00 L against a constant external pressure of 0.985 atm. Calcula...

Assume that 1.20 g of benzoic acid, C_6H_5COOH, is burned in a porcelain dish exposed to the air. If 31,723 J of energy is given off and the surrounding temperature is 24.6 degrees C, calculate q,...

A system does 430 J of work in its surroundings while absorbing 270 J of heat. Calculate the change in the internal energy of the system. Choose the correct answer. a) 700 J b) 160 J c) -160 J...

Calculate Delta E, and determine whether the process is endothermic or exothermic for the following case: A system releases 29 kJ of heat to the surroundings and does 226 kJ of work on the surround...

A system does 1.80 x 10^8 J of work while 7.50 x 10^8 J of heat transfer occurs to the environment. What is the change in internal energy of the system assuming no other changes (such as in tempera...

The statement "Energy can be neither created nor destroyed" is sometimes used as an equivalent statement of the first law of thermodynamics. There are inaccuracies to the statement, however. Restat...

A balloon filled with 0.505 mole of gas contracts reversibly from 1.0 L to 0.10 L at a constant temperature of 5.0 C. In doing so, it loses 2690 J of heat. Calculate w, q, \Delta U, and \Delta H fo...

An object of height 25 cm is placed 40 cm away from a converging lens of focal length 0 cm. a. Calculate the image distance, the magnification, and the image size. b. Is the image upright or inver...

Apply the first law of thermodynamics to the motion of an automobile.

Energy is (a) lost if heat is produced. (b) a form of power. (c) conserved in a closed system. (d) equal to mv.

Calculate \Delta U when 1.00 mol of H_2 goes from 1.00 atm, 10.0 L, and 295 K to 0.793 atm, 15.0 L, and 350 K.

Under what conditions will \Delta U be exactly zero for a process whose initial conditions are not the same as its final conditions?

Calculate the work for the isothermal, reversible compression of 0.245 mole of an ideal gas going from 1.000 L to 1.00 mL if the temperature were 95.0 degrees Celsius.

A 1.75-mole sample of an ideal gas is compressed isothermally from 62.0 L to 19.0 L using a constant external pressure of 2.80 atm. Calculate q, w, Delta U, and Delta H.

The law of conservation of energy is expressed by the (a) first law of thermodynamics. (b) second law of thermodynamics. (c) first law of motion. (d) second law of motion.

Calculate the work in joules when a piston moves from a volume of 50.00 mL to a volume of 450.00 mL against a pressure of 2.33 atm.

According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, the total amount of energy in the universe is constant. Why, then, do we say that we are experiencing a declining supply of energy?

What are the sign conventions for q, the amount of heat added to or removed from a system?

In an isochoric process, the internal (thermal) energy of an ideal gas decreases by 100 J. How much heat is exchanged with the gas during this process? a. 100 J. b. 0.0 J. c. None of these choices....

Use the First Law of Thermodynamics to describe what occurs when an incandescent light is turned on.

State the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy, and explain how it differs from the Law of Conservation of Matter and the Law of Conservation of Energy.

All electrical motors are less than 100% efficient in converting electrical energy into usable work. How can their efficiency be less than 100% and the Law of Conservation of Energy still be valid?

A system releases 691 kJ of heat and does 100 kJ of work on the surroundings. What is the change in the internal energy of the system? Express your answer to 2 sig figs.

When 1 mol of a gas burns at constant pressure, it produces 2416 J of heat and does 6 kJ of work. Part A) Identify \Delta E for the process. Express your answer using one significant figure. \De...

0.9 mol of an ideal gas initially at 19^\circ C and 1.15 bar pressure are heated to a final temperature of 330^\circ C at a constant pressure. The Cv_m of this gas is 3.3 R. Part A - Calculate th...

A gaseous reaction occurs at a constant pressure of 1.75 atm and releases 4 kJ of heat. Before the reaction, the volume of the system was 35 L. After the reaction, the volume was half the initial v...

When one mole of ice, H_2O (s), is converted to H_2O(l) at 0^\circ C and 1 atm, 6.01 kJ is absorbed by the system. The molar volume, \dfrac{V}{n}, for ice and water is 0.0196L, and 0.0180 L respect...

A gas is compressed from an initial volume of 5.55L to a final volume of 1.24L by an external pressure of 1.00 atm. During the compression the gas releases 125J of heat. What is the change in inter...

Into a well insulated cup (meaning no heat lost or gained to the surroundings) a sample of water at room temperature is added. To the water, a sample of metal at 80 degrees C is added. What is the...

The figure below displays a closed cycle for a gas. From c to b, 40 J is transferred from the gas as heat. From b to a, 130 J is transferred from the gas as heat, and the magnitude of the work done...

In the given engine cycle, P1 = 102 kPa, P2 = 205 kPa, P3 = 315 kPa, V1 = 1.2 m3, V2 = 2.1 m3, and V3 = 3.1 m3. Calculate the net work Answer in kilojoules. The figure is not drawn to scale.

A system delivers 495 J of heat and has 825 J of work done on it. Calculate the change in the internal energy.

Explain what would \Delta E_{rxn} represent in a hypothetical equation. (Hint: Feel free to give an example using an equation of your choice.)

Calculate \Delta E if the system absorbs 7.53 kJ of heat from the surroundings, while its volume remains constant (assume that only P-V work can be done).

Classify the following by the sign of \Delta U for the system below. The following can be classified into these three categories; negative, positive, not enough data. Explain your answer: The syst...

Calculate Delta E for a system that absorbs 744.0 kJ of heat from its surroundings and does 277.0 kJ of work on its surroundings.

An ideal monatomic gas undergoes changes in pressure and volume, as shown in the PV diagram below. The initial volume is 0.02 m3 and the final volume is 0.10 m3. The initial pressure is 1 atm and t...

A particular system is doing work on the surroundings as well as gaining heat from the surroundings. What can be said about the values of q (heat) and w (work) for this system? A. q is negative and...

A system obtains the amount of heat equal to q greater than 0 from the surroundings at constant volume. Will the internal energy of the system increase, decrease, or remain constant? Will the tempe...

How much PV work is done, and what is the value of Delta E for the reaction of 0.50 mol of H_2 with 0.25 mol of O_2 at atmospheric pressure if the volume change is -5.6 L? 2H_2(g)+O_2(g) to 2H_2O(g...

When surroundings lose energy, the temperature drops. a. True b. False

A hollow ball with a mass of 0.624 kg and a radius of 0.120 m (a regulation basketball) is rolling without slipping along a horizontal surface with a translational speed of 2.00 m/s. It then starts...

The air within a piston equipped with a cylinder absorbs 575 J of heat and expands from an initial volume of 0.12 L to a final volume of 0.86 L against an external pressure of 1.0 atm. What is the...

Hydrogen peroxide undergoes the first-order decomposition to water and O_2 in aqueous solution. The rate constant at 25 degrees C is 7.40 times 10^{-4} s^{-1}. Calculate the volume of O_2 obtained...

A gas expands and does P-V work on the surroundings equal to 259 J. At the same time, it absorbs 216 J of heat from the surroundings. What is the change in energy of the system?

Find delta E, delta H, q, and w for the change in state of 1.0mol H2O(l) at 85C to H2O(g) at 116C. The heat capacity of H2O(l) = 75.3J/molK, heat capacity of H2O(g)= 25.0J/molK, and the heat of vap...

An ideal gaseous reaction occurs at a constant pressure of 40.0 atm and releases 71.3kJ of heat. Before the reaction, the volume of the system was 7.40L. After the reaction, the volume of the syste...

Calculate change of E for the following situations a. q=105.0 J; w= -75.0 J b. q=6.60 KJ; w= 0.80 J c. q= -715.0 J; w=-335 J Please give the change of E answer in Joules, and please show work.

A sample of 4.0 mole O_2 is originally confined to 20 L at 270 K and then undergoes adiabatic expansion against a constant pressure of 600 torr until the volume has tripled. Calculate delta T, del...

What is the internal energy (U) change of a system that emits 358 J of heat and receives 412 J of work?

Air at 1 atm and 20 degrees Celsius occupies an initial volume of 0.001 m^3 in a piston-cylinder assembly. The air is confined by the piston which has a constant restraining force so that pressure...

A process under study results in the system energy increasing by 250 Joules and the process gives off 2.5 kilojoules of heat. What is the work done on or by the system during this process? Solve fo...

An experimenter puts 3.00 mol H2 gas and 1.00 mol O2 gas, both at 1.00 atm and 25 degrees C, in a cylinder with a piston. Suppose the gases are then ignited so that they react to form liquid water,...

A car has been fitted with an internal combustion engine that uses propane as a fuel. C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) to 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g) What is the maximum work that you can obtain from 1.00 kg of propane, C...

What equation solves for enthalpy in an adiabatic process?

You are at a lab and would like to see the laws of thermodynamics in action. For this purpose, you take a container and put gas with internal energy of 150 J into it. Then, you start adding heat of...

What is DeltaU for the following reaction at 25 degrees C? 2H2(g) + O2(g) to 2H2O(l)

Heat energy is transferred to 860 g of air at constant pressure due to which the temperature increase from 84 degrees C to 6548 degrees C. Calculate: a) The amount of heat energy transferred b) The...

What is the change of internal energy in a system that has 3 J of work done on it and releases 2 J of heat to the surroundings?

A gas in a system has constant pressure. The surroundings around the system lose 62 J of heat and does 474 J of work onto the system. What is the internal energy of the system?

Calculate the change in internal energy (Delta E) for a system that isgiving off 25.0 kJ of heat and is changing from 12.00 L to 6.00 L in volume at 1.50 atm pressure. (Remember that 101.3 J = 1 L...

The first law of thermodynamics and the conservation of energy, as discussed in Conservation of Energy, are clearly related. How do they differ in the types of energy considered?

The temperature of a rapidly expanding gas decreases. Explain why in terms of the first law of thermodynamics. (Hint: Consider whether the gas does work and whether heat transfer occurs rapidly int...

Suppose a gas absorbs 463 J of energy while doing 170 J of work on its environment. Calculate the change in the internal energy of the gas.

A system absorbs 159 kJ of heat, and performs 83 kJ of work on the surroundings. What is the change in E of the system?

What is the change in internal energy (in J) of a system that releases 170 J of thermal energy to its surroundings and has 102 cal of work done on it?

Suppose a woman does 600 J of work and -9500 J of heat transfer occurs into the environment in the process. (a) What is the decrease in her internal energy, assuming no change in temperature or con...

When the first law of thermodynamics, \Delta U = Q + W, is applied to an ideal gas that is taken through an adiabatic process, A) Delta U = 0. B) W = 0. C) Q = 0. D) none of the above

A gas is heated and it absorbs 100 kJ of heat. It expands by doing 25 kJ of work. What is the internal energy change of the gas? a. 125 kJ b. -125 kJ c. 75 kJ d. -75 kJ

The rate constant for a reaction is 1.5 x 10-2 s-1 at 750 K and 5.1x 10-2 s-1 at 848 K. What is the activation energy? Answer choice A. 29 kJ/mol B. 66 kJ/mol C. 65 kJ/mol D. 28 kJ/mol

A mixture of gas expands from 0.03 cubic meters to 0.06 cubic meters at a constant pressure of 1000 kPa and absorbs 84 kJ of heat during the process. What is the change in internal energy of the mi...

A 300w electric immersion heater is used to heat a cup of water. The cup is made of a glass and its mass is 300g. It contains 250 g of water at 15 degrees Celsius. How much time is needed to bring...

In which situations does the internal energy of enclosed gas system increase? \\ a. The heat gained by the system is less than the work done by the system on the surroundings when the system exp...

A system does 2.29 \times 10^8 J of work while 5.53 \times 10^8 J of heat transfer occurs to the environment. What is the change in internal energy of the system assuming no other changes (such as...

A gas is cooled and loses 82 J of heat. The gas contracts as it cools, and work done on the system equal to 29 J is exchanged with the surroundings. What are q, w, and Delta U?

One mole of gas is initially at a pressure of 2.2 atm, volume of 0.46 L and has an internal energy equal to 81.2 J. In its final state the gas is at pressure 1 atm and volume 0.9 L, and its interna...

Explain, in terms of conservation of momentum and energy, why collisions of neutrons with protons will thermalize neutrons better than collisions with oxygen.

Suppose you burn 0.300 g of C(graphite) in excess of O_2(g) in a constant volume calorimeter to give CO_2(g). C(graphite) + O_2(g) rightarrow CO_2(g) The temperature of the calorimeter, which con...

A gaseous reaction occurs at a constant pressure of 50.0 atm and releases 57.7 kJ of heat. Before the reaction, the volume of the system was 8.80 L. After the reaction, the volume of the system was...

If 200g of Argon gas (Ar) expands from the initial temperature of 150 degrees Celcius and in the process does 3.15 kJ of work and absorbs 1.52 kJ of heat what is the final temperature of the gas?

How much heat transfer occurs from a system, if its internal energy decreased by 150 J while it was doing 30.0 J of work?

A 12.0-kg child descends a slide 2.50 m high and, starting from rest, reaches the bottom with a speed of 1.30 m/s. How much thermal energy due to friction was generated in this process? (Your resul...

At the end of a 15-min session on a stationary bike at the gym, the bike's display indicates that you have delivered 180 kJ of energy to the bike in form of work. Your heart monitor shows that you...

The First Law of Thermodynamics states: a. energy is constantly being created by entropy events. b. energy can be changed from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed. c. energy ca...

How much heat (in kJ) is needed to convert 75.0 grams of ice at -20 degrees Celsius to steam at 115 degrees Celsius?

A gas is compressed, during which 400 J of P-V work is done on the gas. At the same time, it absorbs 150 J of heat from the surroundings. What is the change, delta E, in the internal energy of the...

Calculate the value of E for a system that absorbs 213 J of heat and has 55 J of work performed on it.

What is the E of a system that releases 13.5 J of heat and does 7.7 J of work on the surrounding?

When the gas expands at constant pressure 180 Pa, the increase in volume is 1.5 m^3, and the heat lost by the gas 300 J. Evaluate the change in internal energy.

A boiler is used to heat steam at a brewery to be used in various applications such as heating water to brew the beer and sanitizing the brewing tanks. 75.0% of the heat produced by the boiler is u...

A gas-phase reaction has a Delta E = +325 J while it contracts (decreases in volume) with a work energy of 145 J. If this reaction were done submerged in 20.0 g of water and assuming perfect heal t...

A system is releasing 37.0 kJ of heat. It is changing in volume from 14.00 L to 5.00 L at 1.70 atm pressure. What is the change in internal energy (Delta E)? (101.3 J = 1 L . atm)

If a system has no change in internal energy, we can say that: A. no work was done on the system. B. the amount of work done by the system was equal to the heat gained. C. the change in heat energy...

0.250 moles of gas are in a piston. The gas does 109 J of work while 240 J of heat is added. What is the change in internal energy?

Air in a balloon does 52 J of work while absorbing 77 J. What is its change in internal energy? (Answer in J.)

How many moles of infrared photons with a wavelength of 1.5 x 10-6 m must be absorbed to heat a 175 g mass of water from 25 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius?

If a system has 350 kcal of work done to it and releases 500 kJ of heat into its surroundings, what is the change in internal energy of the system?

How do you know when the system is doing work versus when the surroundings are doing work?

A system undergoes a process consisting of the following two steps: Step 1. The system absorbs 72 J of heat while 35 J of work is done on it. Step. 2. The system absorbs 35 J of heat while performi...

What is the change in the internal energy of a system that absorbs 2300 J of heat and does 7545 J of work on the surroundings?

How much heat (in kJ) is needed to convert 856 grams of ice at -10 degrees Celsius to steam at 128 degrees Celsius?

Write whether the statement is true or false. Write a brief explanation for the reasoning used to arrive at the answer. A moving block is brought to rest by friction. Despite the block losing kinet...

An ideal gas is subjected to the process (A \to B) as shown in the figure. (a) Find the work done by gas in going from A \to B. (a) If the change of Internal Energy, E(B) - E(A) is 2 Joules find th...

A balloon is inflated by heating the air inside. Its volume is changed from 3.50 x 10^6 L to 4.00 x 10^6 L by the addition of 1.2 x 10^8 J of energy as heat. Assuming that the balloon expands again...

What is the speed of the block right after it leaves the spring?

At 25 degrees C, one mole of an ideal gas undergoes a reversible, isothermal expansion during which its volume increases by a factor of 10. Find the total amount of heat released (or absorbed) duri...

An ideal gas is allowed to expand slowly at constant temperature to twice its original volume. During the expansion, the gas absorbs 200 kJ of heat. (a) What is the change in the internal (thermal)...

Air is compressed from 100 kPa and 30 degrees C to 80 degrees C in an adiabatic compressor. Air mass flow rate is 7 kg/s. Determine power required for this compressor. Consider C_p = 1.013 kJ/(kgK).

For a particular process, q = -17 kJ and w = +21 kJ. This means the system does work on the surroundings. Is this statement true or false? Explain.

Delta E = q + w is one expression for: a. the first law of thermodynamics b. conservation of mass and energy c. Hess's law d. enthalpy e. specific heat

A small electric immersion heater is used to heat 57 g of water for a cup of instant coffee. The heater is labeled "190 watts" (it converts electrical energy to thermal energy at this rate). Calcul...

Consider an isolated system divided into two parts, A and B, by a rigid, impermeable, thermally conducting wall. If an amount of heat qA is transferred into part A, use the first law to show that t...

A system suffers an increase in internal energy of 80 J and at the same time has 50 J of work done on it. What is the heat change of the system?

At the base of a frictionless icy hill that rises at 25.0 degrees above the horizontal, a toboggan has a speed of 11.7 m/s toward the hill. How high vertically above the base will it go before stop...

A system gains 662 kJ of heat, resulting in a change in the internal energy of the system equal to +186 kJ. How much work is done?

The heat needed to raise the temperature by 10 degrees C of the 10 moles an ideal gas is 2100 J. Find: a) the change in volume. b) heat capacities pressure and at constant volume, if during that pr...

State the first law of Thermodynamics and discuss briefly.

A gas is compressed from 59.5 L to 1.6 L at 0.70 atm. In addition, a total of 3300 J of heat is gained from warmer surroundings. What is the change in internal energy in kJ?

A system releases 1275 J of heat, while the surroundings perform 855 J of work on the system. Calculate Delta E in J.

The decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide in carbon tetrachloride solution at 30 degrees Celsius is first order in N2O5 with a rate constant of 4.10 x 10-3 min-1. N2O5 arrow 2NO2 + 1/2O2 If the ini...

What is the delta E for the formation of 3 moles of CO at 1 atm and 25 degrees Celsius?

In moving out of a dormitory, a student does 2.78 \times 10^4 \; J of work. In the process, his internal energy decreases by 5.27 \times 10^4 \; J. Determine the value of Q.

In moving out of a dormitory, a student does 2.78 \times 10^4 \; J of work. In the process, his internal energy decreases by 5.27 \times 10^4 \; J. Determine the value of \Delta U.

If a system loses 250 kJ of heat at the same time that it is doing 500 kJ of work on the surroundings, what is the change in the internal energy of the system?

A system gains 3330 J of heat at a constant pressure of 1.46 \times 10^5 Pa, and its internal energy increases by 4190 J. What is the change in the volume of the system, and is it an increase or a...

Three moles of an ideal monatomic gas are at a temperature of 308 K. Then 2490 J of heat is added to the gas, and 773 J of work is done on it. What is the final temperature of the gas?

What is the overall energy change of a system if a chemical reaction transfers 32.1 kJ of heat to the surroundings while it causes the expansion of a 1.45 L vessel to 3.68 L against a pressure of 3...

What is an example of an energy transformation from electrical to sound energy?

Calculate Delta E for a system that absorbs 983.0 kJ of heat from its surroundings and does 578.0 kJ of work on its surroundings.

A gas cools and the heat transferred in the process is 1550.0 J. At the same time, it is compressed and the work involved in compression is 640.0 J. Calculate the change in internal energy for the...

A 1.00 L gas sample absorbs 10.0 kJ of heat and simultaneously expands against a constant pressure of 1.00 atm until it reaches a final volume 25.0 L. (a) How much work (in kJ) is done by the gas d...

In a constant volume process, the internal energy is -5600 J. Determine the heat transferred and show if heat is released or absorbed by the system with proof.

Calculate the work done by an ideal gas is going from state A to state C in the figure for each of the following processes: (a) ADC, (b) ABC, and (c) AC directly.

A system absorbs 300 kJ of heat and does 650 J of work on the surroundings. What is the change in internal energy of the system?

A system does 541 kJ of work, and loses 266 kJ of heat to the surroundings. What is the change in the internal energy of the system? \boxed{\space} kJ

A piston expands against an external pressure of 2.35 atmospheres(atm), If the initial volume is 0.455 L and the final volume is 1.318 L, then how much work (in J) is done? Assume adiabatic conditi...

A gas is compressed from an initial volume of 5.40 L to a final volume of 1.20 L by an external pressure of 1.00 atm. During the compression, the gas releases 123 J of heat. What is the change in i...

State first law of thermodynamics.

Explain the law of conservation of energy.

What is the relationship between heat added to a system, change in its internal energy, and external work done by the system?

A gas is allowed to expand at constant pressure from a volume of 1.0 L to 10.1 L against an external pressure of 0.50 atm. If the gas absorbs 250 J of heat from the surroundings, what are the value...

How does the law of conservation of energy relate to the first law of thermodynamics?

On a warm summer day, a large mass of air (atmospheric pressure 1.01 \times 10^5 Pa) is heated by the ground to a temperature of 27.0^oC and then begins to rise through the cooler surrounding air....

The first law of thermodynamics states that: a. entropy tends to increase in a system. b. entropy tends to decrease in a system. c. energy cannot be created nor destroyed. d. the quality of energy...

One mole of an ideal gas is slowly compressed to one-third of its original volume. In this compression, the work done on the gas has a magnitude of 694 J. For the gas, C_p=7R/2. A) If the process...

If a system has 325 kcal of work done to it and releases 5.00 x 102 kJ of heat into its surroundings, what is the change in internal energy of the system?

Using entropy for air at 1.3 bar, 423 K and velocity of 40 m/s enters a nozzle operating at steady state and expands adiabatically to the exit, where the pressure is 0.85 bar and velocity is 307 m/...

A system delivers 225 J of heat to the surroundings while delivering 645 J of work. Calculate the change in the internal energy of the system.

For a particular process q = 17 kJ and w = 21 kJ. Which of the following statements is false? a. None of the above is false. b. The process is exothermic. c. E = +4 kJ d. Heat flows from the syste...

A gas expands and does P-V work on the surroundings equal to 325 J. At the same time, it absorbs 127 J of heat. Calculate the change in energy of the gas.

The law of conservation of energy: a. states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. b. states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed and cannot change from one form to another....

An ideal gaseous reaction occurs at a constant pressure of 40.0 atm and releases 70.5 kJ of heat. Before the reaction, the volume of the system was 9.00 L. After the reaction, the volume of the sys...

If a system has 475 kcal of work done to it and releases 5.00 times 102 kJ of heat into its surroundings, what is the change in internal energy of the system?

10.0 mL of 0.10M N a O H is reacted with 10.0 mL of 0.1M H C l in a coffee cup calorimeter. The temperature decreased from 37.14 to 23.00 C. The heat capacity for water is 4.18 J/g C. Ca...

If a stationary system has 2.00 x 102 kcal of work done on it and releases 5.00 x 102 kJ of heat into the surroundings, what is the change in the internal energy of the system?

An 80.0-gram sample of a gas was heated from 25 degrees Celsius to 225 degrees Celsius. During this process, 346 J of work was done by the system (which was stationary), and its internal energy inc...

Assuming constant pressure, rank these reactions from most energy released by the system to most energy absorbed by the system based on the following descriptions. Assume that the magnitude of the...

A system absorbs 881 J of heat while performing 1,424 J of work on its surroundings. Calculate Delta U in J.

A 6.620 g sample of decane (C_10H_22) was burned in a bomb calorimeter. The heat capacity of the calorimeter was 24.5 J/^oC and contained exactly 1250 g water which increased from 24.62 ^oC to 27.4...

2200 J of heat, Qin is added to a gas. The gas expands and does Wby gas = 750 J of work. Calculate the change in the internal energy of the gas, Einternal? Hint: deltaE = Qin + Won the system A)...

A cylinder with a sliding piston contains an ideal gas. The cylinder (with the gas inside) is heated by transferring the same amount of heat to the system by two different ways: a) The piston is bl...

In the Conservation of Energy we can say that friction is a dissipative force that decreases the mechanical energy of the system, but the total energy is maintained. (a) True (b) False.

A cylinder in a horizontal position contains an unknown noble gas at 48400 Pa and is sealed with a massless piston. The piston is slowly, isobarically moved inward 0.176 m, while 15900 J of heat is...

Mixing 25.0 mL of 1.2 M HClO_4 and 25.0 mL of 1.1 M NaOH were mixed. The temperature of the initial solution was 22.4 degrees C. Assuming a Heat of Neutralization of 55.8 KJ/mol, what would the fin...

What is the change in internal energy of a system if the system evolves 290 cal of heat and has 1.25 kJ of work done on it?

What is the change in internal energy of a system if the system absorbs 135 J of heat and does 683 J of work?

What is the change in internal energy of a system if the system absorbs 60 J of heat and does 60 J of work?

A mole of methane (assume perfect gas) is heated reversibly at atmospheric pressure until its volume doubles. The experiment is tried with two initial temperatures (a) 0 degrees C and (b) 100 degre...

The figure below shows a gas contained in a vertical piston-cylinder assembly. A vertical shaft whose cross-sectional area is 0.8 cm 2 is attached to the top of the piston. The total mass of the p...

A sample of carbon monoxide gas whose mass is 8.78 g is heated from 25 degrees C to 165 degrees C at a constant pressure of 5.82 bar. a. Calculate q (in J) for this process? b. Calculate w (in J) f...

Explain why in a reversible adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas, the temperature of the gas drops. Use the required equations in your explanation.

An ideal gas undergoes an adiabatic compression from p = 1 atm, V = 106 L, T = 0^{\circ}C to p = 105 atm, V =103 L. Find the difference between E_{int_(final)} - E_{int(initial)} per mole. Your ans...

What are q and w (in kJ) for the reaction of 49.0 g of N a ( s ) and 47.0 g of C l 2 ( g ) to produce N a C l ( s ) at 1 atm and 298K?

A balloon filled with 39.1 moles of helium gas has a volume of 876 L at 0.0 degrees Celsius and 1.00 atm. At constant pressure, the temperature of the balloon is increased to 38.0 degrees Celsius,...

What is heat capacity and how do you calculate it?

A balloon filled with 39.1 mol of He gas has a volume of 875 L at 0.0 degrees Celsius and 1.00 atm. The temperature is increased to 38.0 degrees Celsius as the balloon expands to 998 L at constant...

How many grams of methane is needed to heat 150 grams of water from 20 degrees Celsius to 90 degrees Celsius?

If you remove a nonpolar substance from water: a. Delta H will be negative b. Delta S will be zero c. Delta H will be zero d. Delta S will be positive

A silver block, initially at 58.5 degrees Celsius, is submerged into 100.0 grams of water at 24.8 degrees Celsius in an insulated container. The final temperature of the mixture upon reaching therm...

Explain what will be the value of Delta H and Delta G, if w = 0 in an endothermic reaction.

Define the first law of thermodynamics. How is it applied?

A chemical system produces 155 kJ of heat and does 22 kJ of work on the surroundings. What is Delta E for the surroundings?

A certain system absorbs 350 J of heat and has 230 J of work done on it. What is the value of Delta U?

A system gives off 196 kJ of heat to the surroundings and the surroundings do 4.2 times 10^2 kJ of work on the system. What is the change in internal energy of the system?

For a certain change, the value of the triangle symbol U is -2.37 kJ. During the change, the system absorbs 650 joules. How much work did the system do?

A reaction at 1.76 atm produces 22.8 L of a gas and evolves 71.0 kJ of heat (exothermic). Calculate the change in internal energy of the system (in kJ).

A reaction at 3.51 atm produces 18.9 L of a gas and evolves 91.9 kJ of heat (exothermic). Calculate the change in internal energy of the system (in kJ).

A reaction at 4.03 atm produces 18.3 L of a gas and evolves 82.6 kJ of heat (exothermic). Calculate the change in internal energy of the system (in kJ).

The internal energy change is 3.74 kJ when an ideal gas expands from 3.50 to 22.6 litres at a constant external pressure of 3.04 atm. What is the heat absorbed by the gas from its surroundings?

An adiabatic turbine expands steam from 500 C and 3.5 MPa to 200 C and .3 MPa. If the turbine generates 750 kW and the heat loss is 100 kW, what is the flow rate of steam through the turbine?

What law states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed?

Prove that C_p - C_v = R for ideal gas, use Maxwell relations and definitions of C_p \:and\: C_v.

True or false? When an animal dies and rots, this is a good example of the first law of thermodynamics.

When the surroundings absorbs heat, is the heat change of the system (Qsystem) positive or negative? 1. positive (greater than 0) 2. negative (less than 0)

A system delivers 1275 J of heat while the surroundings perform 855 J of work on it. Calculate delta U in J. A. 2130 J B. 1275 J C. 420 J D. 2130 J E. 420 J

What is the value of delta E for a system in which 300 kJ of heat is given off and 200 kJ of work is done on the system? (a) -500 kJ (b) +500 kJ (c) -100 kJ (d) +100 kJ.

An ideal monatomic gas (Cv =3/2 R, Cp=5/2R) is subject to the following steps: (A) The gas is heated reversibly at a constant pressure of 1 atm from 25 degree C to 100 degree C. (In a reversible h...

Which of the following processes has a positive value for E and which are exothermic? (a) A system absorbs 50 kJ of heat from the surroundings and does 30 kJ of work on the surroundings. (b)...

What is the change in internal energy for each of the following situations? Which of these represents an exothermic process? (a) q=3.4 J into the system and w=5.3 J done on the system (b) q=6.5 J...

Exactly 1.5 g of a fuel is burned under conditions of constant pressure and then again under conditions of constant volume. In measurement A, the reaction produces 25.9 kJ of heat. In measurement B...

How is the enthalpy of a system determined from the internal energy and the work done?

The change in E for a system is 31 kJ. If 175 kJ of work was done on the system, how much heat was released? A. +144 kJ B. +206 kJ C. -206 kJ D. -144 kJ E. -5.6 kJ

A beaker of water comprises a thermodynamic system. The system undergoes a process in which the system loses 14 kJ of heat to the surroundings while the surrounding performs 20 kJ of work on the sy...

An ideal gas has its pressure cut in half slowly, while being kept in a container with rigid walls. In the process, 269 kJ of heat left the gas. (a) How much work was done during this process? (b)...

A sample of gas is compressed by an average pressure of 0.50 atm so as to decrease its volume from 400 cm3 to 200 cm3. During the process, 8.00 J of heat flows out to the surroundings. Calculate th...

What equation relates the change in internal energy to heat and work?

State the law of conservation of mass. Describe how you might demonstrate this law.

For a van der Waals gas, pi_T_3 = a V_m^{-2}. Calculate the Delta U_m for the isothermal expansion of argon gas from an initial volume of 1dm^3 to 22.1 dm^3 at 298 K.

Which statement correctly describes the first law of thermodynamics? a. Energy is neither lost nor gained by an object. b. Energy is stored as matter. c. The energy lost by a system is gained by th...

Air in a balloon does 27 J of work while absorbing 75 J of heat. What is its change in internal energy?

A sample consisting of 1.50 moles of He is expanded isothermally at 25 degrees Celsius from 12.8 dm3 to 31.7 dm3 (a) reversibly, (b) against a constant external pressure equal to the final pressure...

A system absorbs 193 kJ of heat and the surroundings do 120 kJ of work on the system. Calculate the change in internal energy of the system.

A system absorbs 192 kJ of heat and the surroundings do 120 kJ of work on the system. What is the change in internal energy of the system?

A balloon filled with 0.505 mol of gas contracts reversibly from 1.0 L to 0.10 L at a constant temperature of 5.0 degrees C. It simultaneously loses 1270 J of heat. Calculate work done for the proc...

A system initially has internal energy, E, of 501 J. It undergoes a process during which it releases 111 J of heat energy to the surroundings, and does work of 222 J. What is the final energy of th...

When a gas is compressed in a cylinder fitted with a piston, the work done is 534J. At the same time, 276J of heat is released to the surroundings. Calculate the change in the internal energy of th...

For a certain change, the value of U is -2.37 kJ. During the change, the system absorbs 650 joules. How much work did the system do?

In a certain process, 6,000 J of heat is added to a system while the system does work equivalent to 9,000 J by expanding against the surrounding atmosphere. What is the change in internal energy fo...

Under what conditions does q, the heat evolved or absorbed by the system in a physical or chemical process, equal the change in enthalpy of the system? a. when q greater than or equal to 0 b. when...

Suppose 100 Joules of work is done on a system and that 300 Joules of heat are delivered to the system. Which of these is predicted by the first law thermodynamics? (a) The internal energy U of the...

Calculate the work (w) and Delta E, in kJ, at 298 K and 1 atm pressure for the combustion of one mole of C3H8(g). First write and balance the equation. The products will be CO2(g) and H2O(g). The v...

The value of Delta E for a system that performs 45 kJ of work on its surroundings and gives off 27 kJ of heat is kJ. a. 18 b. 45 c. -27 d. -72 e. -18

A system absorbs 196 kJ of heat and the surroundings do 110 kJ of work on the system. Calculate Delta E.

What quantities appear in the first law of thermodynamics? A. force, mass, acceleration B. inertia, torque, angular momentum C. work, heat, thermal energy D. work, heat, entropy

Which of the following statements is/are true? Select all of the correct answers. a. For a given process, Delta H can never be zero. b. For a given process, Delta Usys and Delta Usurr cannot have t...

Consider a chemical reaction that does 0.56 kJ of work and increases the internal energy by 7.3 kJ. What is the total heat flow?

Consider a chemical reaction that has the following thermodynamic data: Delta U = 1.37 kJ and q = -3.44 kJ. a. Is the work done by the system or the surroundings? b. Is the chemical reaction endoth...

Consider a chemical reaction that does 310 J of work and decreases the internal energy by 31 kJ. What is the total heat flow?

Suppose a chemical reaction does 310 J of work and decreases the internal energy by 31 kJ. What is the total heat flow?

Calculate the work done on or by a system that absorbs 260 kJ of heat and experiences a change in internal energy of 157 kJ. Does the system expand or contract? How do you know?

A system does 450 J of work that results in an increase in internal energy of 450 J. How much heat is added or removed?

Consider the following four cases. In how many of these cases does the internal energy of the system decrease? a. A chemical process in which heat is absorbed. b. A change in which q = 30 J, w = 44...

A balloon filled with 39.1 mol helium has a volume of 876 L at 0.0 ^oC and 1.00 atm pressure .The temperature of the balloon is increased to 38.0 ^oC as it expands to a volume of 998 L ,the pressu...

A 19.0-kg child on a 4.00-m-long swing is released from rest when the ropes of the swing make an angle of 33.0 degrees with the vertical. a. Neglecting friction, find the child's speed at the lowes...

Five moles of an ideal monatomic gas with an initial temperature of 142 degrees Celsius expand and, in the process, absorb 1700 J of heat and do 2400 J of work. What is the final temperature of the...

Suppose a woman does 863 J of work and dissipates 7,954 J of heat in the process. What is the decrease in her internal energy, assuming no change in temperature or consumption of food? (That is, th...

How to evaluate the efficiency of ocean/wave energy to the Law of Conservation of Energy?

A piston compresses the air in the cylinder by doing 94 J of work on the air. as a result, the air gives off 179 J of heat to the surroundings. If the system is the air in the cylinder, what is the...

Calculate the change in energy for a system that absorbs 867.0 kJ of heat from its surroundings and does 269.0 kJ of work on its surroundings.

In which of the following cases does the internal energy of the system decrease? (a) A chemical process in which heat is absorbed (b) A change in which q= 30 J, w=44 J (c) A process in which a s...

A glider with mass 0.56 kg sits on a frictionless horizontal air track, connected to a spring of negligible mass with force constant 3 N/m. You pull on the glider, stretching the spring 0.54 m from...

The first law of thermodynamics is also known as: a) Law of conservation of mass and energy. b) Law of conservation of mass. c) Law of mass action. d) Law of conservation of energy.

The work done in a chemical reaction is -250J. If the system absorbs 500J of heat, what will be the change in internal energy? a) -250J. b) -750J. c) +750J. d) +250J.

A wheel with a weight of 394 N comes off a moving truck and rolls without slipping along a highway. At the bottom of a hill, it is rotating at an angular velocity of 23.7 rad/s. The radius of the w...

If a system has 2.50 * 10^2 kcal of work done to it, and releases 5.00 * 10^2 kJ of heat into its surroundings, what is the change in internal energy of the system?

A certain system absorbs 0.200 kJ of heat and has 0.700 kJ of work performed on it. What is the value of Delta E for the change? Is the overall changes exothermic or endothermic?

A quantity of a diatomic ideal gas undergoes a process in which both its pressure and volume are increased by a factor of n = 4. What is the energy absorbed by heat into the gas during this process?

What minimum speed does a 140 g puck need to make it to the top of a 4.10 m long, 24.0^\circ frictionless ramp?

A gas is enclosed in a container fitted with a piston of cross-sectional area equal to 0.06 squared meters. The pressure of the gas is maintained at 4718 Pa as the piston moves inward by 10 cm. \\...

What are the two ways that energy can be transferred between a system and its surrounding?

Select the statements below that are true when an ice cube is placed in a glass of hot water. a. The energy lost by the ice cube will be equal to the energy gained by the water. b. The energy gaine...

Two moles of helium are initially at a temperature of 21.0^\circ C and occupy a volume of 3.30\times 10^{-2}\ m^3. The helium first expands at constant pressure until its volume has doubled. Then i...

A snowmaker at a resort pumps 200 kg of lake water per minute and sprays it into the air above a ski run. The water droplets freeze in the air and fall to the ground, forming a layer of snow. If al...

In the formula Delta U = q + w, work done by the system during expansion is (positive/negative), and heat (gained/lost) by the system is positive.

If an MP3 player does 200 kJ of work and released 100 kJ of heat, what is the change in internal energy for the MP3 player?

True or false? Energy flows between the system and the surroundings but remains constant.

1) A chemical reaction occurs in a vessel of cross-section 100 cm^2 fitted with a loosely fitted seal. During the reaction the seal is pushed out through 10 em against the external pressure of 1.0...

We start with 5.00 moles of an ideal monatomic gas with an initial temperature of 132 ^oC. The gas expands and, in the process, absorbs an amount of heat equal to 1220 J and does an amount of work...

The constant-pressure heat capacity of helium is 20.79 J/K. How much heat is required to raise the temperature of a sample of 1.0 mol by 10 K at 25 degrees Celsius \\ (a) when it is in a constant...

You have 1 mole of N2 gas in 50.0 dm3 at 300 K. Calculate q, w, DH, DU, and DS associated with a reversible expansion at constant pressure to 100 dm3. You should assume N2 has a temperature depende...

The value of Delta E for a system that performs 139 kJ of work on its surroundings and gains 54 kJ of heat is: (blank). (a) -85 (b) 193 (c) 7506 (d) 85 (e) -193

An ideal gas expands at a constant pressure of 6.00 x 10^5 Pa from a volume of 1.00 m^3 to a volume of 4.00 m^3 and then is compressed to one-third that pressure and a volume of 2.50 m^3 as shown i...

Order the follow processes from (1) the least work done by the system to (5) the most work done by one mole of an ideal gas at 25 C. a. A reversible isothermal expansion from 1.0 L to 10 L. b. A re...

A container filled with gas is compressed by a constant pressure of 4 atm from a volume of 15 L to 9 L. At the same time, the system gives off 800 J of heat to the surroundings. (101.32 J = 1 L*at...

The air in an inflated balloon is warmed over a toaster and absorbs 125 J of heat. As it expands, it does 77 J of work. What is the change in internal energy for the system, in Joules?

A chemical system produces 120 kJ of heat and does 30 kJ of work. What is Delta E for the surroundings?

Which of the following statements is true? (a) w and P V have the same sign because work flows into the surroundings as the gas expands. (b) w and P V have the opposite sign because w...

What is the change in internal energy for a system undergoing an endothermic process in which 29.2 kJ of heat flows and where 3.70 kJ of work is done on the system? (a) 32.9 kJ (b) 108 kJ (c) 25...

If a system loses 250 kJ of heat while it is doing 500 kJ of work on the surroundings, what is the change in the internal energy of the system? (a) +250 kJ (b) -250 kJ (c) +750 kJ (d) -750 kJ

A 100 g sample of water at 25 C and 1 atm of pressure _____ than 100 g of water that has recently been heated to 100 C from 0 C and then cooled to 25 C at 1 atm of pressure. (a) has more internal...

For a particular process, the system releases 17 kJ of heat and has 21 kJ of work performed on it. Which of the following statements is false? (a) Heat flows from the system to the surroundings....

Which of the following is the correct definition of the law of conservation of energy? a. states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed b. states that energy cannot be created or destroye...

What is the internal energy change for the system if 855 joules of heat flows from the system into the surroundings and 155 joules of work is done by the system on the surroundings?

A sample of gas is compressed from 12.39 L to 3.91 L using a constant external pressure of 5.33 atm. At the same time, 1465 J of heat flows into the surroundings. What is the internal energy change...

A reaction takes place at a constant pressure of 1.12 atm with an internal energy change (Delta E) of +74.9 kJ and a volume decrease of 10.6 L. What is the enthalpy change (Delta H) for the reaction?

What is the law of conservation of energy? Give a specific example. Discuss in terms of a chemical reaction.

A simple type of vacuum tube known as a diode consists essentially of two electrodes within a highly evacuated enclosure. One electrode, the cathode, is maintained at a high temperature and emits e...

What is w for the complete reaction of 0.27 mol of C at 25 C and 1 atmosphere? R = 8.314 J/mol C(s) + Ca(s) + 3/2 O2(g) = CaCO3(s)

What are \Delta E, q, w, and \Delta H for the evaporation of 15.4 g of Br2(l) at 298 K and 1 atm?

Determine \Delta H, q, w, and \Delta E at 298 K and 1 atm pressure for the reaction of 9.093 g of NH3(g) with excess HCl(g) to produce NH4Cl(s)?

If a refrigerator is a heat pump that follows the first law of thermodynamics, how much heat removed from the food inside of the refrigerator if it released 366 J energy in the room? How to calcula...

An ideal gas undergoes an isothermal expansion during which 500J of work are done by the system on the surroundings. What is the heat transfer?

A system receives 575 J of heat and delivers 575 J of work to its surroundings. What is the change in internal energy of the system (in J)?

In a gas expansion, 9.0 x 101 J of heat is absorbed by the system, and the energy of the system decreases by 136 J. Calculate the work done.

In a gas expansion, 88 J of heat is absorbed by the system, and the energy of the system decreases by 116 J. Calculate the work done.

Which of the following does result in a change in the internal energy of the system? Select one: \\ a. work is done on the system b. work is done on the surroundings c. heat flows into the syste...

Calculate the change in total internal energy for a system that releases 2.15 times 10^4 kJ of heat and does 6.04 times 10^4 kJ of work on the surroundings. Give your answer in scientific notation.

a. If a metal with a higher specific heat was used, would this raise or lower the final water temperature? Explain. b. If 50 g of water was used instead of 100 g, would this raise or lower the fina...

When a system does work on the surroundings, the sign of W is positive because the system gains energy. (a) True (b) False

Which physical law underlies the first law of thermodynamics? A. Conservation of matter. B. Increase in entropy. C. Conservation of Energy. D. Conservation of work.

A system of gas at low density has an initial pressure of 1.65 \times 10^4 Pa and occupies a volume of 0.20 m^3. The slow addition of 1,000 J of heat to the system causes it to expand isobarically...

When a chain of metal links with a total mass of 5 kg is coiled up in a tight ball on a low-friction table. You pull on a link at one end of the chain with a constant force of 63 N. Eventually the...

The internal energy of an ideal gas system increases by 20 J, while 50 J of heat is removed from the system. Does the system do work or is work done on the system? How much work is involved?

If 370 kcal is added to a gas that expands and does 800 kJ of work, what is the change in the internal energy of the gas?

The RMS speed of the molecules in 1.9 g of hydrogen gas is 1800 m/s. a) What is the total translational kinetic energy of the gas molecules? b) What is the thermal energy of the gas? c) 500 J of...

If the height of a cliff is 35 m and the diver weighs 70 kg, calculate the potential energy and the kinetic energy of the diver at h = 35 m.

One kilogram of dry air is warmed from 20 ^oC to 70 ^oC under a constant pressure of 1 atmosphere. Calculate: (a) the heat absorbed by the gas (b) the work done

When a gas is compressed in a cylinder fitted with a piston, the work done is 514 J, at the same time, 272 J of heat is released to the surrounding. (a) Is this process endothermic or exothermic? (...

An ideal gas initially at T = 12 K undergoes a transformation, as shown in the figure below. Find the work W_3 done by the gas in step 3, given that a total of Q = 200 J were provided to the gas th...

Using the first law of thermodynamics, explain why the temperature of a well-insulated gas in a container increases when it is compressed, whereas the temperature decreases when the gas expands.

A system gives off 46.0 kJ of heat and has 914 J of work done on it by the surroundings, what are the values for q, w and \Delta E?

A gas is allowed to expand at constant pressure until it reaches its final volume. It is then cooled at constant volume until it reaches its final pressure. The initial state of 1.00 mol of a dilut...

We do 735J of work on 2.00 mole of ideal gas by compressing it and observe that its temperature increases by 20.0. Calculate the heat in the process.

When two moles of a diatomic gas is compressed, the work done on it is 325 J and its temperature increases by 12 ^oC . How much heat is absorbed by the gas?

If a molecule has f degrees of freedom, show that an ideal gas consisting of such molecules has the following properties: (a) its internal energy is (1/2) fnRT, (b) its molar heat capacity at con...

When you take a bath, how many gallons of hot water at 150 degrees F should you mix with cold water at 60 degrees F to produce 4.8 gallons of warm water at 90 degrees F?

Describe the energy transformations that take place when a skier starts skiing down a hill but after a time, is brought to rest by striking a tree.

The force constant of a spring is 600 N/m and the unstretched length is 0.72 m. A 3.2-kg block is suspended from the spring. An external force slowly pulls the block down, until the spring has been...

Identify the __incorrect__ statement below: a. The symbol H refers to the enthalpy, or "heat content" of the system. b. The Delta H of a reaction tells one the heat liberated or absorbed under con...

An ideal gas (which is a hypothetical gas that conforms to the laws governing gas behavior) confined to a container with a massless piston at the top. A massive wire is attached to the piston. When...

Air is contained in a vertical piston-cylinder assembly with an electrical resistor. The atmosphere exerts a pressure of 14.7 lbf/sq inch on the top of the piston which has a mass of 100 lb and a f...

If the change in energy in a closed system during a specific interval of time was 15 joules and 10 joules of heat was radiated out of the system during the same period of time what is the value of...

A balloon is filled with gas to 165 mL at 20 degrees C. The balloon then expands to 345 mL by changing the temperature. What amount of work (in J) is performed by the balloon?

Calculate Delta U of a gas for a process in which the gas absorbs 12 J of heat and does 20 J of work by expanding.

If __q = 18 kJ__ and __w = 15 kJ__ for a certain process, that process Select one: a. requires a catalyst. b. has an increase in internal energy. c. occurs slowly. d. is exothermic. e. cannot...

What is the First Law of Thermodynamics? Elaborate.

The vaporization of 1 mole of liquid water (the system) at 100.9 C, 1.00 atm, is endothermic. H2O(l) + 40.7 kJ = H2O(g) Assume at exactly 100.0 C and 1.00 atm total pressure, 1.00 mole of liquid...

A gas is compressed and during this process the surroundings do 110 J of work on the gas. At the same time, the gas absorbs 267 J of heat from the surroundings. What is the change in the internal e...

For the actions described below, state whether the work W done by the gas, the heat energy Q transferred to the gas, and the change in the internal energy ΔU of the gas are positive (+), nega...

An automobile engine provides 633 Joules of work to push the pistons. In this process the internal energy changes by -2933 Joules. What is q for the engine? This represents the amount of heat th...

An automobile engine provides 610 joules of work to push the pistons and generates 2300 joules of heat that must be carried away by the cooling system. Calculate the change in the internal energy o...

An automobile engine provides 587 Joules of work to push the pistons and generates 2300 Joules of heat that must be carried away by the cooling system. Calculate the change in the internal energy (...

An automobile engine provides 554 Joules of work to push the pistons. In this process the internal energy changes by -2794 Joules. What is q (in Joules) for the engine?

A chemical reaction is run in which 567 Joules of heat is generated and the internal energy changes by +33 Joules. What is w (in Joules) for the reacting system?

How do you calculate % difference for work and energy?

On July 4, 2005, the NASA spacecraft Deep Impact fired a projectile onto the surface of Comet Tempel 1. This comet is about9.0 km across. Observations of surface debris released by the impact showe...

A roller coaster car starts at rest and coasts down a frictionless track. It encounters a vertical loop of radius R. How much higher than the top of the loop must the car start if it is to remain i...

Calculate the change in internal energy for the following system. 150 Joules of energy is added to a system that has 75 Joules of work done on it.

Calculate the change in internal energy for the following system. 75 Joules of energy is removed from a system that has 50 Joules of work done on it.

Calculate the change in internal energy for the following system. 100 joules of energy is added to a system that does 40 joules of external work.

A 78 g, 32-cm-long rod hangs vertically on a frictionless, horizontal axle passing through its centre. A 13 g ball of clay travelling horizontally at 2.0 m/s hits and sticks to the very bottom tip...

An audience of 1800 fills a concert hall of volume 2.2 x 10^4 m^3. If there were no ventilation, by how much would the temperature of the air rise over the period of 2 hours due to the metabolism o...

A bungee jumper of mass 80.0 kg jumps from a platform that is 180 m above a river. The cord's length when unstretched is 30.0 m. Assume that the cord obeys Hooke's law when it stretches. The lowest...

A sample consisting of 1.00 mole Ar is expanded isothermally at 0^o C from 22.4 L to 44.8 L: (a) reversibly (b) against an external pressure equal to the final pressure of the gas (c) against zero...

An ideal gas at 25 ^oC and 2 atm adiabatically (q = 0) expands into a vacuum to twice its original volume, the final temperature is: a) < 25 ^oC b) = 25 ^oC c) > 25 ^oC

A system gains 727 kJ of heat, resulting in a change in internal energy of the system equal to 201 kJ. How much work is done?

120 grams of boiling water (temperature 100 ^oC, heat capacity 4.2 J/gram/K) are poured into an aluminum pan whose mass is 1100 grams and initial temperature 22 ^oC (the heat capacity of aluminum i...

Eight moles of a monoatomic ideal gas are confined as shown by a cylindrical tube and a moveable piston. Initially, the gas is at a temperature of T = 300 K, a pressure of 2 atm, and h = 1.5 m. Be...

Two balls make up a closed system. Ball A has 546 J of energy and ball B has 254 J. After they collide, ball A has 67 J. How much energy does ball B have after they collide?

Concrete has a specific heat capacity of 670 joules/kg ^\circ C. A 2 kg concrete block, that has a temperature of 20 ^\circ C, is dropped from a height of 100 meters. What is its temperature after...

Suppose 1.15 mol of oxygen is heated at a constant pressure of 0.90 atm from 13.0^{\circ}C to 26.0^{\circ}C. (a) How much heat is absorbed by the gas? (b) Using the ideal gas law, calculate the cha...

When water evaporates, it does work in pushing the air away as it expands into vapour. If 1.0 kg of water does 1.7 \times 10 ^5 \; J of work on the atmosphere, what is the change in volume of the w...

A helium filled balloon with a volume of 1.00 * 10^3 cm^3 and temperature of 27 degrees C is placed in liquid nitrogen in an open container and cools to a temperature of 77 K. Assume that helium be...

Starting from rest, a proton is accelerated in the positive-x direction through a potential difference of 62 kV. (A proton has mass of 1.67e-27 kg and charge of 1.602e-19 C.) (a) What is the speed...

A 10.0 kg shell is traveling horizontally to the right at 25 m/s relatives to the ground, when it explodes into two fragments, one of mass 3.00 kg and the other of mass 7.00 kg. The lighter fragmen...

An elevator cable breaks when a 925 kg elevator is 22.5 m above the top of a huge spring (k = 8.00 x 104 N/m) at the bottom of the shaft. a) Calculate the work done by gravity on the elevator befor...

You have been hired as an expert witness in a court case involving an automobile accident. The accident involved a car of mass 1900 kg (car A) which approached a stationary car of mass 1000 kg (car...

The internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on its temperature. Analyze these processes using the first law of thermodynamics. a. When a sample of an ideal gas is allowed to expand at constan...

A thermodynamic system undergoes a process in which its internal energy increases by 550 J. If at the same time, 210 J of work is done on the system, what is the energy transferred to or from it by...

An ideal gas doubles its volume in one of three different ways: at constant pressure, at constant temperature, and adiabatically. For each method, 1. Give an expression for the work done. 2. The ch...

A 220 g block is pressed against a spring of forceconstant 1.40 \frac{kN}{m} until the block compresses the spring 10.0 cm. The spring rests at the bottom of a ramp inclined at 60.0 degrees to the...

A freight car with a mass of 25000 kg rolls down an inclined frictionless track through a vertical distance of 1.5 m. At the bottom of the incline, on a level track, the car collides and couples wi...

A simple pendulum, 2.0 m in length, is released by a push when the support string is at an angle of 25 degrees from the vertical. If the initial speed of the suspended mass is 1.2 m/s when at the r...

Suppose that a storm cloud has a potential difference of 30 x 106 V relative to a tree. a. If during a lightning strike, 50 C of charge is transferred through this potential difference, determine h...

Three moles of a monatomic ideal gas are heated at a constant volume of 2.21 m^3. The amount of heat added is 5.16 10^3 J. (a) What is the change in the temperature of the gas? (b) Find the chang...

A vessel contains water. Paddles that are propelled by falling masses turn in the water, causing the water's internal energy to increase.

If a machine does 4.8 x 103 kJ of work after an input of 7.31 x 103 kJ of heat, what is the change in internal energy for the machine?

If a system has 475 kcal of work done to it, and releases 5.00 \times 10^2 kJ of heat into its surroundings, what is the change in internal energy of the system?

What is QC, the heat exhausted in one cycle?

A piston of mass 20 kg and area 50 cm2 sits freely on a cylinder of 40 moles of monoatomic gas. The temperature of the gas is 300 K. a. What is the pressure of the gas? b. What is the volume of the...

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