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Write the balanced equations (molecular equation, complete ionic equation, and net ionic...

Question:

Write the balanced equations (molecular equation, complete ionic equation, and net ionic equation) for the reactions that occur when the following aqueous solutions are mixed. (Use the lowest possible coefficients. Include states-of-matter under the given conditions in your answer.)

(a) barium hydroxide (aqueous) and hydrochloric acid

(b) ammonia (aqueous) and nitric acid

(c) solid silver hydroxide and hydrochloric acid

(d) perchloric acid HClO{eq}_4 {/eq}(aq) and iron(III) hydroxide

Balanced Equations:

As the name suggests, balanced equations are the chemical equations that have a similar quantity of atoms on both the product side and the reactant side of a typical chemical equation.

Answer and Explanation: 1


(a) The given reaction is barium hydroxide (aq) and hydrochloric acid


The molecular equation for this reaction can be written as,


{eq}{\rm{Ba}}{\left( {{\rm{OH}}} \right)_{\rm{2}}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + {\rm{HCl}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {\rm{BaC}}{{\rm{l}}_{\rm{2}}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + {{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}


Balancing the number of hydrogens on both the sides, the balanced equation can be written as,


{eq}{\rm{Ba}}{\left( {{\rm{OH}}} \right)_{\rm{2}}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 2{\rm{HCl}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {\rm{BaC}}{{\rm{l}}_{\rm{2}}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 2{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}


Its ionic equation can be represented as,


{eq}{\rm{B}}{{\rm{a}}^{2 + }}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 2{\rm{O}}{{\rm{H}}^ - }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 2{{\rm{H}}^ + }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right){\rm{ + 2C}}{{\rm{l}}^ - }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {\rm{B}}{{\rm{a}}^{2 + }}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right){\rm{ + 2C}}{{\rm{l}}^ - }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 2{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}


Cancelling the spectator ions on both the sides, the net ionic equation of this reaction can be written as,


{eq}2{\rm{O}}{{\rm{H}}^ - }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 2{{\rm{H}}^ + }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to 2{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}


That is,


{eq}{\rm{O}}{{\rm{H}}^ - }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + {{\rm{H}}^ + }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}

(b) The given reaction is ammonia (aq) and nitric acid


The balanced molecular equation for this reaction can be written as,


{eq}{\rm{N}}{{\rm{H}}_3}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + {\rm{HN}}{{\rm{O}}_3}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {\rm{N}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{4}}}{\rm{N}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{3}}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) {/eq}


Its ionic equation can be represented as,


{eq}{\rm{N}}{{\rm{H}}_3}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + {{\rm{H}}^ + }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right){\rm{ + NO}}_3^ - \left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {\rm{NH}}_4^ + \left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right){\rm{ + NO}}_3^ - \left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) {/eq}


Cancelling the spectator ions on both the sides, the net ionic equation of this reaction can be written as,


{eq}{\rm{N}}{{\rm{H}}_3}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + {{\rm{H}}^ + }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {\rm{NH}}_4^ + \left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) {/eq}


(c) The given reaction is solid silver hydroxide and hydrochloric acid,


No reaction takes place between solid silver hydroxide and HCl because hydrogen comes above silver in the reactivity series hence H is more reactive. So, Ag cannot replace hydrogen.


(d) The given reaction is perchloric acid {eq}{\rm{HCl}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{4}}} {/eq} (aq) and iron (III) hydroxide


The molecular equation for this reaction can be written as,


{eq}{\rm{Fe}}{\left( {{\rm{OH}}} \right)_3}\left( {\rm{s}} \right) + {\rm{HCl}}{{\rm{O}}_4}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {\rm{Fe}}{\left( {{\rm{Cl}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{4}}}} \right)_{\rm{3}}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + {{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}


Balancing the number of hydrogens and oxygens on both the sides, the balanced equation can be written as,


{eq}{\rm{Fe}}{\left( {{\rm{OH}}} \right)_3}\left( {\rm{s}} \right) + 3{\rm{HCl}}{{\rm{O}}_4}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {\rm{Fe}}{\left( {{\rm{Cl}}{{\rm{O}}_{\rm{4}}}} \right)_{\rm{3}}}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 3{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}


Since solid ferric hydroxide dissociates to ions in the aqueous solution of perchloric acid, its ionic equation can be represented as,


{eq}{\rm{F}}{{\rm{e}}^{3 + }}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 3{\rm{O}}{{\rm{H}}^ - }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 3{{\rm{H}}^ + }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right){\rm{ + 3ClO}}_4^ - \left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {\rm{F}}{{\rm{e}}^{3 + }}\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 3{\rm{ClO}}_4^ - \left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 3{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}


Cancelling the spectator ions on both the sides, the net ionic equation of this reaction can be written as,


{eq}3{\rm{O}}{{\rm{H}}^ - }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + 3{{\rm{H}}^ + }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to 3{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}


That is,


{eq}{\rm{O}}{{\rm{H}}^ - }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) + {{\rm{H}}^ + }\left( {{\rm{aq}}} \right) \to {{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}\left( {\rm{l}} \right) {/eq}


Learn more about this topic:

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Balanced Chemical Equation: Definition & Examples

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Chapter 10 / Lesson 18
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Learn about the steps to balancing chemical equations. Understand how to balance chemical equations, practice balancing chemical equations, and see examples.


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