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Research in mice has shown that disabling the function of a certain organelle contributes to...

Question:

Research in mice has shown that disabling the function of a certain organelle contributes to major neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. The organelle is a compartment inside all cells that controls the processing, sorting, and transport of proteins. It is fundamental for the growth of the cell membrane and also for the release of many types of proteins such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and the proteins that make up our skeletons.

Which organelle is the subject of the study above?

A. Mitochondria

B. Peroxisome

C. Lysosome

D. Golgi apparatus

E. Ribosome

Cell Compartmentalization:

In a cell, reactions of synthesis (anabolism) and reactions of degradation (catabolism) proceed in parallel. This is possible because the eukaryotic cell has diverse types of organelles and compartments that perform highly specialized functions. This compartmentalization is supported by various mechanisms that maintain different conditions in the organelles and compartments, impose separation and facilitate communications between the compartments.

Answer and Explanation: 1


The correct answer is D (Golgi apparatus).


The Golgi apparatus is a single-membrane cell compartment that looks like a stack of cisternae. Three parts of the Golgi are distinguished, cis, medial, and trans. The cis face of the Golgi apparatus is closer to the endoplasmic reticulum and the trans face is closer to the plasma membrane. The Golgi apparatus is involved in protein processing, sorting, and transporting. It is required for the maintenance of the cell membrane and secretion of proteins with diverse functions.


Answers A, B, C, and E are incorrect as explained below.


A. Mitochondria

This answer is incorrect because mitochondria are organelles with functions other than sorting and transporting proteins; they also do not package proteins for secretion. Mitochondria are double-membrane organelles with several functions, the main one of which is the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the process of oxidative phosphorylation.


B. Peroxisome

This answer is incorrect because peroxisomes are single-membrane organelles that have several metabolic functions. The peroxisomes contain a variety of enzymes that perform oxidative and synthetic reactions.


C. Lysosome

This answer is incorrect because the lysosomes are single-membrane organelles with a diverse array of acid hydrolases that facilitate the degradation of all types of molecules in the cells (i.e., nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates). Lysosomes also fuse with phagosomes and autophagosomes to digest their contents. Lysosomes release the products of degradation into the cytosol or outside the cells.


E. Ribosome

This answer is incorrect because ribosomes are the complexes of RNA and proteins that facilitate the translation of messenger RNAs into proteins.


Learn more about this topic:

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Golgi Apparatus: Definition & Function

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Chapter 4 / Lesson 15
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Learn about the Golgi Apparatus and its importance for eukaryotic cells. Discover its complex structure and its function as molecules modifier.


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