# Determine the following information for sulfur. a. atomic number b. number of protons, neutrons,...

## Question:

Determine the following information for sulfur.

a. atomic number

b. number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the neutral atom

c. number of valence electrons

d. tendency to gain or lose valence electrons

e. charge on the ion

## Periodic Table of Elements:

All the known elements are listed in the periodic table of elements. The elements are listed in terms of increasing atomic number. We find that the periodic table can be classified in terms of vertical columns, known as groups, and horizontal rows, known as periods.

## Answer and Explanation: 1

#### Question A)

The atomic number {eq}\rm Z {/eq} of sulfur is {eq}\boxed{\rm Z = 16} {/eq} based on the periodic table of elements.

#### Question B)

• The number of protons is equal to the atomic number, so that the number of protons is equivalent to {eq}\boxed{\rm p^+ = 16} {/eq}.
• The number of neutrons {eq}\rm N {/eq} is found from the mass number {eq}\rm M {/eq} and {eq}\rm Z {/eq}, such that {eq}\rm N = M - Z {/eq}. Using the mass number of sulfur, {eq}\rm M = 32 {/eq}, we obtain {eq}\rm N = 32 - 16 {/eq}, or a total number of neutrons equivalent to {eq}\boxed{\rm n^0 = 16} {/eq}.
• In a neutral atom, the number of electrons {eq}\rm e^- {/eq} is equal to the number of protons, so that {eq}\rm e^- = p^+ {/eq} and the number of electrons is {eq}\boxed{\rm e^- = 16} {/eq}.

#### Question C)

The number of valence electrons is given by the group number. Sulfur belongs to the group 6A and, thus, it contains {eq}\boxed{\text{6 valence electrons}} {/eq}.

#### Question D)

Sulfur is a non-metal. Therefore, it has a tendency to gain electrons to obtain an octet in its valence shell. Having a total of 6 valence electrons, sulfur is capable of gaining 2 more valence electrons to fulfill its octet.

#### Question E)

When sulfur gains two additional electrons, it achieves a net charge of {eq}\rm 2- {/eq}. The sulfide ion can be represented as {eq}\boxed{\rm S^{2-}} {/eq}.